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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary or tertiary higher learning, research, or honorary membership. The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded approximately 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece. Etymology The word comes from the Academy in ancient Greece, which derives from the Athenian hero, Akademos. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning. The sacred space, dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, Athena, had formerly been an olive grove, hence the expression "the groves of Academe".In these gardens, the philosopher Plato conversed with followers. Plato developed his sessions into a method of teaching philosophy and in 387 BC, established what is known today as the Old Academy. By extension, academia has come to mean the cultural accumulation of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations as well as its practitioners and transmitters. In the 17th century, British, Italian and French scholars used the term to describe types of institutions of higher learning. Origins Original Academy Before Akademia was a school, and even before Cimon enclosed its precincts with a wall, it contained a sacred grove of olive trees dedicated to Athena, the goddess of wisdom, outside the city walls of ancient Athens. The archaic name for the site was Hekademia, which by classical times evolved into Akademia and was explained, at least as early as the beginning of the 6th century BC, by linking it to an Athenian hero, a legendary "Akademos". The site of Akademia was sacred to Athena and other immortals. Plato's immediate successors as "scholarch" of Akademia were Speusippus (347–339 BC), Xenocrates (339–314 BC), Polemon (314–269 BC), Crates (ca. 269–266 BC), and Arcesilaus (ca. 266–240 BC). Later scholarchs include Lacydes of Cyrene, Carneades, Clitomachus, and Philo of Larissa ("the last undisputed head of the Academy"). Other notable members of Akademia include Aristotle, Heraclides Ponticus, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Philip of Opus, Crantor, and Antiochus of Ascalon. Neoplatonic Academy of Late Antiquity After a lapse during the early Roman occupation, Akademia was refounded as a new institution of some outstanding Platonists of late antiquity who called themselves "successors" (diadochoi, but of Plato) and presented themselves as an uninterrupted tradition reaching back to Plato. However, there cannot have actually been any geographical, institutional, economic or personal continuity with the original Academy in the new organizational entity.The last "Greek" philosophers of the revived Akademia in the 6th century were drawn from various parts of the Hellenistic cultural world and suggest the broad syncretism of the common culture (see koine): Five of the seven Akademia philosophers mentioned by Agathias were Syriac in their cultural origin: Hermias and Diogenes (both from Phoenicia), Isidorus of Gaza, Damascius of Syria, Iamblichus of Coele-Syria and perhaps even Simplicius of Cilicia.The emperor Justinian ceased the school's funding in AD 529, a date that is often cited as the end of Antiquity. According to the sole witness, the historian Agathias, its remaining members looked for protection under the rule of Sassanid king Khosrau I in his capital at Ctesiphon, carrying with them precious scrolls of literature and philosophy, and to a lesser degree of science. After a peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empire in 532 guaranteed their personal security (an early document in the history of freedom of religion), some members found sanctuary in the pagan stronghold of Harran, near Edessa. One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius, a pupil of Damascius, the last head of the Athenian school. It has been speculated that Akademia did not altogether disappear. After his exile, Simplicius (and perhaps some others), may have travelled to Harran, near Edessa. From there, the students of an academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. Ancient and medieval institutions Ancient world Greece and early Europe In ancient Greece, after the establishment of the original Academy, Plato's colleagues and pupils developed spin-offs of his method. Arcesilaus, a Greek student of Plato established the Middle Academy. Carneades, another student, established the New Academy. In 335 BC, Aristotle refined the method with his own theories and established the Lyceum in another gymnasium. Africa The Musaeum, Serapeum and library of Alexandria Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa, Europe and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy, language and mathematics. The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktu, present-day Mali, which comprised three schools: the Mosque of Djinguereber, the Mosque of Sidi Yahya, and the Mosque of Sankore. During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25,000 students within a city of around 100,000 people. China In China a higher education institution Shang Xiang was founded by Shun in the Youyu era before the 21st century BC. The Imperial Central Academy at Nanjing, founded in 258, was a result of the evolution of Shang Xiang and it became the first comprehensive institution combining education and research and was divided into five faculties in 470, which later became Nanjing University. In the 8th century another kind of institution of learning emerged, named Shuyuan, which were generally privately owned. There were thousands of Shuyuan recorded in ancient times. The degrees from them varied from one to another and those advanced Shuyuan such as Bailudong Shuyuan and Yuelu Shuyuan (later become Hunan University) can be classified as higher institutions of learning. South Asia Taxila or Takshashila, in ancient India, modern-day Pakistan, was an early centre of learning, near present-day Islamabad in the city of Taxila. It is considered one of the ancient universities of the world. According to scattered references which were only fixed a millennium later it may have dated back to at least the 5th century BC. Some scholars date Takshashila's existence back to the 6th century BC. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was most likely still provided on an individualistic basis. Takshashila is described in some detail in later Jātaka tales, written in Sri Lanka around the 5th century AD.It became a noted centre of learning at least several centuries BC, and continued to attract students until the destruction of the city in the 5th century AD. Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya. The famous treatise Arthashastra (Sanskrit for The knowledg.... Discover the Academia popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Academia books.

Best Seller Academia Books of June 2022

Den lille ven book summary, reviews and downlod

Den lille ven

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Hos familien Cleve taler man om alt, undtagen Robin. Familien var i færd med at forberede middagen den skæbnesvangre dag for tolv år siden: Charlotte kaldte på barnet, men Robin kom ikke...

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Der Distelfink

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Es passiert, als Theo Decker dreizehn Jahre alt ist. An dem Tag, an dem er mit seiner Mutter ein New Yorker Museum besucht, verändert ein schreckliches Unglück sein Leben für immer. Er ve...

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Az aranypinty

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„Olvastad már Az Aranypintyet?” – koktélpartik és baráti beszélgetések visszatérő kérdése volt ez a könyv megjelenése idején Amerikában. Tizenkét év hallgatás után je...

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Pieni ystävä

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Mestarillisen monivivahteinen romaani Jumalat juhlivat öisin -teoksen tekijältä Pienen ystävän näyttämönä on 1970-luvun Mississippi. 12-vuotiaan Harriet Dufresnesin elä...

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Il cardellino (Vintage)

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Theo Decker sopravvive, appena tredicenne, all’attentato terroristico che in un istante manda in pezzi la sua vita. Solo, a New York, viene accolto dalla ricca famiglia di un compagno di s...

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Szczygieł (Nagroda Pulitzera 2014)

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Le chardonneret

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Qui est Theo ? Que lui est-il arrivé à New York pour qu'il soit aujourd'hui, quatorze ans plus tard, cloîtré dans une chambre d'hôtel à Amsterdam comme une bête traquée ? Qu'est deve...

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O pintassilgo

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Romance vencedor do prêmio Pulitzer de Literatura. Mais de trinta semanas na lista de mais vendidos do New York Times. Theo Decker, um nova-iorquino de treze anos, sobrevive milagrosamente ...

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Pasfotos

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Skrivna zgodovina

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Skrivna zgodovina pripoveduje zgodbo o tesni skupini prijateljev klasične filologije na elitnem kolidžu, ki pod vplivom karizmatičnega profesorja iščejo smisel življenja in v svoji že...

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A titkos történet

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Tajemna historia

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Stehlík

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Donna Tartt je výrazným a ojedinelým zjavom súčasnej americkej literárnej scény, literárna kritika hodnotí každý jej román ako výnimočnú udalosť. Za román Stehlík dostala v...

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Le maître des illusions

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The Secret History

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Istoria Secretă

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Sub influența charismaticului lor profesor de limbi clasice, un grup de tineri inadaptați, inteligenți și excentrici de la un colegiu de elită din New England descoperă un mod de a gâ...

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Tajný príbeh

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Der kleine Freund

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Alexandria, eine kleine Stadt in den Südstaaten: Hier wächst Harriet Cleve in einem Zuhause voller Geborgenheit auf, und dennoch lastet ein dunkler Schatten auf ihrer Kindheit. Zwölf Jahr...

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The Goldfinch

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A young New Yorker grieving his mother's death is pulled into a gritty underworld of art and wealth in this "extraordinary" and beloved Pulitzer Prize winner from the author of Th...

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Dio di illusioni

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Un piccolo raffinato college nel Vermont. Cinque ragazzi ricchi e viziati e il loro eccentrico e affascinante professore di greco antico, che insegna al di fuori delle regole accademiche imp...

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Sticletele

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Theo Decker, un adolescent de treisprezece ani din New York, supraviețuiește ca prin minune unei explozii care îi omoară mama într-un muzeu de artă și intră fără voia lui în poses...

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The Little Friend

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The second novel by Donna Tartt,  bestselling author of The Goldfinch (winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize),  The Little Friend  is a grandly ambitious and utterly...

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Un juego de niños

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La determinación de una niña de doce años por llegar al fondo del crimen que se llevó a su hermano cuando ella era solo un bebé. La novela que demostró que Donna...

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Istoria secreta

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Sub influența charismaticului lorprofesor de limbi clasice, un grupde tineri inadaptați, inteligenți șiexcentrici de la un colegiu de elitădin New England descop...

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Il piccolo amico

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Harriet Cleve ha dodici anni e una vita vissuta sotto il segno di una tragedia di cui non ha memoria: quando era solo una neonata, suo fratello Robin è stato impiccato a un albero del giard...

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Le Petit copain

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Tikli

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Den hemliga historien

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När Richard Papen börjar college accepteras han snart av skolans innersta intellektuella krets. De är människorna han vill vara med, som han fascineras av, men han inser snabbt att de in...

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Lišček

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Trinajstletnemu Theodorju Deckerju se podre svet, ko mu med terorističnim napadom v newyorškem Metropolitanskem muzeju umre ljubljena mama. Med opotekanjem skozi ruševine se oprime znamen...

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Щиголь (Shhigol')

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Видано 45 мовами! Донна Тартт — лауреат Пулітцерівської премії № 1 у списку 100 видатних книжок за ...

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Steglitsan

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En ung pojke i New York City, Theo Decker, överlever mirakulöst en olycka som tar hans mammas liv. Ensam och sviken av sin pappa flyttar han in hos en väns familj, inom sig kämpar han me...

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Den lille vännen

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”Charlotte Cleve skulle under återstoden av sitt liv förebrå sig själv för sin sons död därför att hon hade beslutat att servera morsdagsmiddagen klockan sex på kvällen i ställe...

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Mały przyjaciel

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Alexandria w stanie Missisipi, Dzień Matki. Mały Robin Dufresnes zostaje powieszony na drzewie w ogródku rodziców. Dwanaście lat później zagadka jego śmierci pozostaje nierozwiązana...

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Jumalat juhlivat öisin

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Kulttimaineen saavuttanut kiehtova bestseller Kun pennitön Richard Papen saapuu apurahan turvin Hampden Collegeen, hänestä tuntuu kuin hän olisi tullut paratiisiin. Älykkäi...

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A kis barát

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„– Szörnyű dolog gyereknek lenni – mondta –, mások kényének-kedvének kiszolgáltatva.” A Cleve család nagy élvezettel idézi fel múltjának csaknem minden rés...

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Stillidsen

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Theo Decker er 13 år, dan han på mirakuløs vis overlever en eksplosion på et kunstmuseum i New York, mens hans elskede mor omkommer. Ved ulykken kommer han i besiddelse af et værdifuldt...

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Sticletele. Reeditare

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Theo Decker, un adolescent de treisprezece ani din New York, supraviețuiește ca prin minune unei explozii care îi omoară mama într-un muzeu de artă și intră fără voia lui în poses...

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Die geheime Geschichte

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Richard Papen stammt aus einfachen Verhältnissen. Als er aufgrund eines Stipendiums das College besuchen kann, ist er gleich fasziniert von der ihm fremden Welt. Besonders zieht ihn eine Gr...

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The Little Friend (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

The Little Friend (Unabridged)

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The second novel by Donna Tartt,  bestselling author of The Goldfinch (winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize),  The Little Friend  is a grandly ambitious and utterly...

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El jilguero

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The Little Friend (Abridged)

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The hugely anticipated new novel by the author of The Secret History—a best-seller nationwide and around the world, and one of the most astonishing debuts in recent times—The L...

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The Goldfinch

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A young New Yorker grieving his mother's death is pulled into a gritty underworld of art and wealth in this "extraordinary" and beloved Pulitzer Prize winner from the author of Th...

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Der Distelfink

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Das neue Meisterwerk von Bestsellerautorin Donna TarttEs passiert, als Theo Decker dreizehn Jahre alt ist. An dem Tag, an dem er mit seiner Mutter ein New Yorker Museum be...

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The Secret History

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In this brilliant novel from Donna Tartt, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Goldfinch, comes a richly textured and hypnotic story of golden youth corrupted by its own moral ...

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True Grit

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Mattie Ross, a fourteen-year-old girl from Dardanelle, Arkansas, sets out to avenge her Daddy who was shot to death by a no-good outlaw. Mattie convinces one-eyed "Rooster" Cogburn, the mean...

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