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The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk is a semi-retired American single-seat, twin-engine stealth attack aircraft that was developed by Lockheed's secretive Skunk Works division and operated by the United States Air Force (USAF). It was the first operational aircraft to be designed around stealth technology. The F-117 was based on the Have Blue technology demonstrator. The Nighthawk's maiden flight took place in 1981 at Groom Lake, Nevada, and the aircraft achieved initial operating capability status in 1983. The aircraft was shrouded in secrecy until it was revealed to the public in 1988. Of the 64 F-117s built, 59 were production versions, with the other five being prototypes. The F-117 was widely publicized for its role in the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Although it was commonly referred to as the "Stealth Fighter", it was strictly a ground-attack aircraft. F-117s took part in the conflict in Yugoslavia, where one was shot down and another damaged by surface-to-air missiles (SAM) in 1999. The U.S. Air Force retired the F-117 in April 2008, primarily due to the fielding of the F-22 Raptor. Despite the type's official retirement, a portion of the fleet has been kept in airworthy condition, and Nighthawks have been observed flying since 2009. Development Background and Have Blue In 1964, Pyotr Ufimtsev, a Soviet mathematician, published a seminal paper titled Method of Edge Waves in the Physical Theory of Diffraction in the journal of the Moscow Institute for Radio Engineering, in which he showed that the strength of the radar return from an object is related to its edge configuration, not its size. Ufimtsev was extending theoretical work published by the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld. Ufimtsev demonstrated that he could calculate the radar cross-section across a wing's surface and along its edge. The obvious and logical conclusion was that even a large aircraft could reduce its radar signature by exploiting this principle. However, the resulting design would make the aircraft aerodynamically unstable, and the state of computer technology in the early 1960s could not provide the kinds of flight computers which would later allow aircraft such as the F-117 and B-2 Spirit to stay airborne. By the 1970s, when Lockheed analyst Denys Overholser found Ufimtsev's paper, computers and software had advanced significantly, and the stage was set for the development of a stealth airplane. The F-117 was born after the Vietnam War, where increasingly sophisticated Soviet surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) had downed heavy bombers. The heavy losses inflicted by Soviet-made SAMs upon the Israeli air force in the 1973 Yom Kippur war also contributed to a 1974 Defense Science Board assessment that in case of a conflict in Central Europe, air defenses would likely prevent NATO air strikes on targets in Eastern Europe.It was a black project, an ultra-secret program for much of its life; very few people in the Pentagon knew the program even existed. The project began in 1975 with a model called the "Hopeless Diamond" (a wordplay on the Hope Diamond because of its appearance). The following year, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) issued Lockheed Skunk Works a contract to build and test two Stealth Strike Fighters, under the code name "Have Blue". These subscale aircraft incorporated jet engines of the Northrop T-38A, fly-by-wire systems of the F-16, landing gear of the A-10, and environmental systems of the C-130. By bringing together existing technology and components, Lockheed built two demonstrators under budget, at $35 million for both aircraft, and in record time.The maiden flight of the demonstrators occurred on 1 December 1977. Although both aircraft crashed during the demonstration program, test data proved positive. The success of Have Blue led the government to increase funding for stealth technology. Much of that increase was allocated towards the production of an operational stealth aircraft, the Lockheed F-117A, under the program code name "Senior Trend". Senior Trend The decision to produce the F-117A was made on 1 November 1978, and a contract was awarded to Lockheed Advanced Development Projects, popularly known as the Skunk Works, in Burbank, California. The program was led by Ben Rich, with Alan Brown as manager of the project. Rich called on Bill Schroeder, a Lockheed mathematician, and Overholser, a computer scientist, to exploit Ufimtsev's work. The three designed a computer program called "Echo", which made it possible to design an airplane with flat panels, called facets, which were arranged so as to scatter over 99% of a radar's signal energy "painting" the aircraft.The first YF-117A, serial number 79-10780, made its maiden flight from Groom Lake ("Area 51"), Nevada, on 18 June 1981, only 31 months after the full-scale development decision. The first production F-117A was delivered in 1982, and operational capability was achieved in October 1983. The 4450th Tactical Group stationed at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada were tasked with the operational development of the early F-117, and between 1981 (prior to the arrival of the first models) and 1989 they used LTV A-7 Corsair IIs for training, to bring all pilots to a common flight training baseline and later as chase planes for F-117A tests.The F-117 was secret for much of the 1980s. Many news articles discussed what they called a "F-19" stealth fighter, and the Testor Corporation produced a very inaccurate scale model. When an F-117 crashed in Sequoia National Forest in July 1986, killing the pilot and starting a fire, the Air Force established restricted airspace. Armed guards prohibited entry, including firefighters, and a helicopter gunship circled the site. All F-117 debris was replaced with remains of a F-101A Voodoo crash stored at Area 51. When another fatal crash in October 1987 occurred inside Nellis, the military again provided little information to the press.The Air Force denied the existence of the aircraft until 10 November 1988, when Assistant Secretary of Defense J. Daniel Howard displayed a grainy photograph at a Pentagon press conference, disproving the many inaccurate rumors about the shape of the "F-19". After the announcement pilots could fly the F-117 during daytime and no longer needed to be associated with the A-7, flying the T-38 supersonic trainer for travel and training instead. In April 1990, two F-117 aircraft were flown into Nellis, arriving during daylight and publicly displayed to a crowd of tens of thousands.Five Full Scale Development (FSD) aircraft were built, designated "YF-117A". The last of 59 production F-117s were delivered on 3 July 1990. As the Air Force has stated, "Streamlined management by Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, combined breakthrough stealth technology with concurrent development and production to rapidly field the aircraft... The F-117A program demonstrates that a stealth aircraft can be designed for reliability and mainta.... Discover the Alan Hlad popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Alan Hlad books.

Best Seller Alan Hlad Books of January 2022

Lungul zbor spre casa book summary, reviews and downlod

Lungul zbor spre casa

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Traducere din engleză şi note de Rodica Ștefan   Pornind de la evenimente reale din timpul celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial, când Marea Britanie a folosit cincisprezec...

El largo camino a casa book summary, reviews and downlod

El largo camino a casa

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En septiembre de 1940, mientras las bombas alemanas caen sobre Gran Bretaña, la joven Susan y su abuelo Bertie hallan consuelo criando y entrenando palomas mensajeras que el Ejército usar...

Um Longo Caminho para Casa book summary, reviews and downlod

Um Longo Caminho para Casa

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BASEADO EM ACONTECIMENTOS REAIS, UM LONGO CAMINHO PARA CASA É UM ROMANCE INSPIRADOR E INTEMPORAL. UMA COMOVENTE HISTÓRIA DE AMOR E DE SACRIFÍCIO.Setembro 1940. Os ...

Szárnyra kelt remény book summary, reviews and downlod

Szárnyra kelt remény

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Nagy-Britannia, 1940 szeptembere. Egyedül Anglia áll már csak szemben a félelmetes náci hadigépezettel. Az eget német bombázók sötétítik el, a szigetország az invázióra kész...

Nos lendemains retrouvés book summary, reviews and downlod

Nos lendemains retrouvés

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« Inspiré d'une histoire vraie, Nos lendemains retrouvés comporte tout ce que j'aime dans un roman : de la nouveauté, du drame et de l'espoir. C'est un premier roman époustouflant écri...

A Light Beyond the Trenches book summary, reviews and downlod

A Light Beyond the Trenches

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Based on the true story of the first school to train guide dogs for the blind, USA Today bestselling author Alan Hlad’s latest novel is a fascinating, poignant, and life-affirmin...

Churchill's Secret Messenger book summary, reviews and downlod

Churchill's Secret Messenger

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A riveting story of World War II and the courage of one young woman as she is drafted into Churchill’s overseas spy network, aiding the French Resistance behind enemy lines and working ...

O longo voo para casa book summary, reviews and downlod

O longo voo para casa

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Quando os alemães decidem atacar Londres, uma arma aparentemente frágil pode ser a esperança enviada do céu. Em setembro de 1940 - um ano depois do início da Segunda Guerra M...

Dlouhý let domů book summary, reviews and downlod

Dlouhý let domů

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Píše se září 1940 a nebe nad Británií křižují německé bombardéry. Britská armáda ve spolupráci se Susan Shepardovou proto spustí tajnou operaci s jediným cílem: vysadit v ...

The Long Flight Home book summary, reviews and downlod

The Long Flight Home

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A USA Today Bestseller  Inspired by fascinating, true, yet little-known events during World War II, The Long Flight Home is a testament to ...

Best Seller Alan Hlad Audio Books of January 2022

Long Flight Home MP3 Audiobook

Long Flight Home

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It is September 1940 - a year into the war - and as German bombs fall on Britain, fears grow of an impending invasion. Enemy fighter planes blacken the sky around the Epping Forest home of S...

El largo camino a casa (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

El largo camino a casa (Unabridged)

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En septiembre de 1940, mientras las bombas alemanas caen sobre Gran Bretaña, la joven Susan y su abuelo Bertie hallan consuelo criando y entrenando palomas mensajeras que el Ejército usar...

Churchill's Secret Messenger: A WW2 Novel of Spies & the French Resistance MP3 Audiobook

Churchill's Secret Messenger: A WW2 Novel of Spies & the French Resistance

Fiction$19.99

A riveting story of World War II and the courage of one young woman as she is drafted into Churchill's overseas spy network, aiding the French Resistance behind enemy lines and working to...

El largo camino a casa MP3 Audiobook

El largo camino a casa

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En septiembre de 1940, mientras las bombas alemanas caen sobre Gran Bretaña, la joven Susan y su abuelo Bertie hallan consuelo criando y entrenando palomas mensajeras que el Ejército usar...

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