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Valve Corporation, also known as Valve Software, is an American video game developer, publisher, and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. It is the developer of the software distribution platform Steam and the Half-Life, Counter-Strike, Portal, Day of Defeat, Team Fortress, Left 4 Dead, and Dota series. Valve was founded in 1996 by former Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. Its debut product, the first-person shooter Half-Life (1998), was a critical and commercial success, after which Harrington left the company. In 2003, Valve launched Steam, which accounted for around half of digital PC game sales by 2011. In the 2010s, Valve began developing hardware, such as the Steam Machine brand of gaming PCs and the HTC Vive and Valve Index virtual reality headsets. By 2012, Valve employed around 250 people and was reportedly worth over US$3 billion, making it the most profitable company per employee in the United States. It uses a flat structure, whereby employees decide what to work on themselves. History Founding and Half-Life (1996–2003) Valve was founded in 1996 by former Microsoft employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. Newell had spent the prior 13 years at Microsoft developing Windows, including the Windows 95 port of Doom. Wanting to move onto a new venture using their shared wealth, Newell and Harrington founded Valve, L.L.C. in Kirkland, Washington (about five miles from the Microsoft campus in Redmond), on August 24, 1996, Newell's wedding day. Alternative names considered by Newell and Harrington include "Fruitfly Ensemble" and "Rhino Scar".Valve's first product was Half-Life, a first-person shooter (FPS) with elements of the horror genre. The development was aided by access to the Quake engine by id Software; Valve modified this engine into their GoldSrc engine. After struggling to find a publisher, Valve eventually signed with Sierra On-Line. Half-Life was released in November 1998, and was a critical and commercial success. According to IGN in 2014, the history of the FPS genre "breaks down pretty cleanly into pre-Half-Life and post-Half-Life eras".Valve enlisted Gearbox Software to develop three expansions for Half-Life: Opposing Force (1999), Blue Shift (2001) and Decay (2001). Valve acquired TF Software in 1998, a group that had made the popular Team Fortress mod for Quake, and remade the mod for GoldSrc as Team Fortress Classic, released in 1999. Valve released the software development kit (SDK) for the GoldSrc engine, facilitating numerous user-created mods. Valve acquired the developers of one popular mod, Counter-Strike, to create a standalone Counter-Strike game. Happy with Valve's success, Harrington left in 2000. Source, Steam, and Half-Life 2 (2003–2010) In 2003, Valve moved to Bellevue, Washington, and reincorporated as Valve Corporation. In 2010, the office moved to a larger location in Bellevue. In 2016, Valve signed a nine-floor lease in the Lincoln Square complex in downtown Bellevue, doubling the size of their offices.Valve began developing Half-Life 2 six months after the release of the first Half-Life, using its new in-house engine, Source. With advanced physics systems and an increased focus on story and characters, it received critical acclaim upon its release in 2004; by 2011, it had sold 12 million copies. In 2002, Valve launched Steam, a digital storefront and delivery platform. Steam initially offered only Valve games, and was mandatory to install Half-Life 2, but became a publisher of third-party games. As Valve became its own publisher via Steam, it transitioned to a looser, flat structure; outside of executive management, Valve does not have bosses, and the company used an open allocation system, allowing employees to move between departments at will.After having taken years to develop Half-Life 2, Valve moved to episodic development, planning to release shorter games more frequently. Half-Life 2: Episode One, the first in a planned trilogy of games continuing the Half-Life 2 story, was released in 2006. Episode Two followed in 2007, alongside the multiplayer game Team Fortress 2, and the puzzle game Portal, developed from a concept by students.In January 2008, Valve announced the acquisition of Turtle Rock Studios, which was renamed Valve South. Turtle Rock developed Left 4 Dead and Left 4 Dead 2 while associated with Valve. Turtle Rock Studios later spun out of Valve again in March 2010.Forbes estimated that Valve had grossed $70 million in 2005. Screen Digest analyst Ed Barton estimated Valve's 2010 revenue to be in the "high hundreds of millions of dollars". As of 2011, Valve had an estimated worth of $2 to 4 billion, and according to Newell it was the most profitable company per employee in the United States. Most of Valve's revenue comes from Steam, which controlled 50 to 70% of the market for downloaded PC games in 2011. Transition to services (2010–2014) In 2010, Valve hired IceFrog, the developer of Defense of the Ancients, a Warcraft III mod. IceFrog led the development of a sequel not associated with the Warcraft elements, Dota 2, released in 2013. Alongside Dota 2 in 2011, Valve started The International, an annual eSports tournament for Dota 2 with a prize pool supported by Valve and funds from microtransactions from battle passes purchased by players.Valve released Portal 2 in April 2011. As with the original Portal, Valve employed a Digipen student team to help develop it; the team behind Tag: The Power of Paint implemented the new gel gameplay.In December 2012, Valve acquired Star Filled Studios, a two-person studio, to open a San Francisco office. Valve ended the operation in August 2013 when they decided there was little benefit coming from the arrangement. At the 2013 D.I.C.E. Summit, Newell announced that he and film director J. J. Abrams were collaborating to produce a Half-Life or Portal film, as well as a possible game.Valve released fewer games in the 2010s. Instead, it explored hardware. Newell intended to make Valve more like Nintendo, which develops games in tandem with hardware, allowing them to create innovative games such as Super Mario 64. Valve initially focused on augmented reality, but in 2013 Newell laid off many staff to focus on virtual reality (VR). Valve released the Steam Machine, a line of gaming computers, which sold poorly.Media commentators speculated that Valve's transition to service provider with Steam, which generated an estimated $3.4 billion in 2017, had driven it away from game development. Many players grew frustrated in anticipation of a new Half-Life game. Valve cancelled games including numerous Half-Life projects, Left 4 Dead 3, a Dark Souls-like combat game, and a voxel-based game, A.R.T.I. Additional VR projects included SimTrek, developed by members of Kerbal Space Program, as well as a new VR hardware, Vader, that was determined to be too costly for consumers. According to designer Robin Walker, the abundanc.... Discover the Alissa C Grosso popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Alissa C Grosso books.

Best Seller Alissa C Grosso Books of June 2021

A Rancher's Bride e-book Download

A Rancher's Bride

Vivian ArendNovember 20, 2018$0.99

Welcome to Heart Falls, where there's more at stake than the future of the Silver Stone ranch. A standalone novel by New York Times bestselling author Vivian Arend. With the ranch teetering ...

The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck e-book Download

The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck

Mark MansonSeptember 13, 2016$12.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller Over 1 million copies sold In this generation-defining self-help guide, a superstar blogger cuts through the crap to show us how to stop trying to be "positive" ...

The Cellist e-book Download

The Cellist

Daniel SilvaJuly 13, 2021$14.99

From Daniel Silva, the internationally acclaimed #1 New York Times bestselling author, comes a timely and explosive new thriller featuring art restorer and legendary spy Gabriel Allon. Vikto...

The Last Thing He Told Me e-book Download

The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$12.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TODAY * ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY * CNN * TOWN & ...

The Paris Apartment e-book Download

The Paris Apartment

Kelly BowenApril 20, 2021$5.99

This heart-wrenching novel about family and war unearths generations of secrets and sacrifices—perfect for fans of The Paris Orphan and The Lost Girls of Paris . 2017, London : When Aureli...

The Warlord of the Air e-book Download

The Warlord of the Air

Michael MoorcockJanuary 15, 2013$1.99

Set in an unstable world where the British Empire rules over all, this genre-defying novel blends steampunk, alternative history, and time travel science fiction   It is 1973, and the s...

Tom Clancy Target Acquired e-book Download

Tom Clancy Target Acquired

Don BentleyJune 8, 2021$14.99

Jack Ryan, Jr., will do anything for a friend, but this favor will be paid for in blood in the latest electric entry in the #1 New York Times bestselling series. Jack Ryan, Jr. would do anyt...

Project Hail Mary e-book Download

Project Hail Mary

Andy WeirMay 4, 2021$14.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • A lone astronaut must save the earth from disaster in this “propulsive” ( Entertainment Weekly ) new science-based thriller from the bestselling author...

Girl, Alone (An Ella Dark FBI Suspense Thriller—Book 1) e-book Download

Girl, Alone (An Ella Dark FBI Suspense Thriller—Book 1)

Blake PierceDecember 16, 2020$0.99

One serial killer. Three copycat murders. One FBI agent with a photographic memory--and a race to save the next victim. "Girl, Alone is suspenseful, riveting, fast-paced, action-oriented, an...

Malibu Rising e-book Download

Malibu Rising

Taylor Jenkins ReidJune 1, 2021$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Read with Jenna Book Club Pick as Featured on Today • From the author of Daisy Jones & The Six and The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo . . . ...

The Maidens e-book Download

The Maidens

Alex MichaelidesJune 15, 2021$14.99

"Alex Michaelides’s long-awaited next novel, 'The Maidens,' is finally here...the premise is enticing and the elements irresistible." —The New York Times "A deliciously dark, elegant, ut...

Legacy e-book Download

Legacy

Nora RobertsMay 25, 2021$14.99

#1 New York Times bestselling author Nora Roberts presents Legacy , a new novel of a mother and a daughter, of ambition and romance, and of a traumatic past reawakened by a terrifying threat...

Where the Crawdads Sing e-book Download

Where the Crawdads Sing

Delia OwensAugust 14, 2018$12.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLING PHENOMENON More than 6 million copies sold A Reese Witherspoon x Hello Sunshine Book Club Pick A Business Insider Defining Book of the Decade  "I can't eve...

The Sweetness of Water (Oprah's Book Club) e-book Download

The Sweetness of Water (Oprah's Book Club)

Nathan HarrisJune 15, 2021$14.99

AN OPRAH’S BOOK CLUB PICK In the spirit of  The Known World  and  The Underground Railroad , “a miraculous debut” ( Washington Post )​ and “a towering achievement of...

The Midnight Library e-book Download

The Midnight Library

Matt HaigSeptember 29, 2020$13.99

The New York Times bestselling WORLDWIDE phenomenon Winner of the Goodreads Choice Award for Fiction | A Good Morning America Book Club Pick | Independent ( London) Ten Best Books of the Yea...

Blood Orange e-book Download

Blood Orange

Susan Wittig AlbertApril 5, 2016$1.99

In the newest China Bayles Mystery in the New York Times bestselling series, China comes to the aid of a nurse who ends up in the hospital...   It’s mid-April in Pecan Springs, and Ch...

My Wicked Mates Collection: Books 1-3 e-book Download

My Wicked Mates Collection: Books 1-3

Erzabet BishopJanuary 7, 2020$0.99

This limited edition collection includes Books 1-3 of the My Wicked Mates shapeshifter paranormal romance series. In the shadows of the night, are intimate cravings worth the ultimate sacrif...

Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume 1 e-book Download

Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume 1

Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle & Simone BeckJanuary 2, 1980$2.99

This is the classic cookbook, in its entirety—all 524 recipes. “Anyone can cook in the French manner anywhere,” wrote Mesdames Beck, Bertholle, and Child, “with the right instruction...

The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo e-book Download

The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo

Taylor Jenkins ReidJune 13, 2017$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “If you ’ re looking for a book to take on holiday this summer, The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo has got all the glitz and glamour to make it a perfect beach r...

Personal e-book Download

Personal

Lee ChildSeptember 2, 2014$8.99

#1  NEW YORK TIMES  BESTSELLER • Jack Reacher returns in another fast-moving, action-packed, suspenseful book from Lee Child.   You can leave the army, but the arm...

What She Left Behind e-book Download

What She Left Behind

Ellen Marie WisemanDecember 31, 2013$11.99

Half a million copies sold!   The breakout novel from the New York Times bestselling author of The Orphan Collector , What She Left Behind weaves together riveting stories of past and p...

The Glorious Guinness Girls e-book Download

The Glorious Guinness Girls

Emily HouricanMay 4, 2021$5.99

From London to Ireland during the 1920s, this glorious, gripping, and richly textured story takes us to the heart of the remarkable real-life story of the Guinness Girls—perfect for fans o...

The Perfect Couple e-book Download

The Perfect Couple

Jackie KablerApril 17, 2020$0.99

THE 2020 BESTSELLER! Perfect for fans of Liane Moriarty, Shari Lapena and Lisa Jewell The perfect couple … or the perfect lie? A devoted wife… A year ago, Gemma met the love of her life,...

The Good Lord Bird e-book Download

The Good Lord Bird

James McBrideAugust 20, 2013$1.99

Now a Showtime limited series starring Ethan Hawke and Daveed Diggs Winner of the National Book Award for Fiction From the bestselling author of  Deacon King Kong  (an Oprah Book C...

Freed e-book Download

Freed

E L JamesJune 1, 2021$9.99

An instant #1 New York Times , USA Today , Wall Street Journal , and international bestseller! Relive the sensuality, the romance, and the drama of Fifty Shades Freed through the thoughts, r...

Bridgerton Collection Volume 1 e-book Download

Bridgerton Collection Volume 1

Julia QuinnMay 26, 2020$19.99

An enchanting collection containing the first three novels in New York Times bestselling author Julia Quinn’s beloved Bridgerton series set in Regency England—The Duke and I, The Viscoun...

A Year on Ladybug Farm e-book Download

A Year on Ladybug Farm

Donna BallMarch 3, 2009$1.99

Their husbands were gone, their families were grown, and the future stretched out before them like an unfulfilled promise... Tired of always dreaming and never doing, Cici, Lindsay, and Brid...

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

The Four Winds e-book Download

The Four Winds

Kristin HannahFebruary 2, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER #1 USA TODAY BESTSELLER #1 WALL STREET JOURNAL BESTSELLER #1 INDIE BESTSELLER " The Four Winds seems eerily prescient in 2021 . . . Its message is galvanizing an...

The Best Man to Die e-book Download

The Best Man to Die

Ruth RendellMay 12, 1981$1.99

The stag party was terrific. The incident that followed was terrifying. . . . “The best mystery writer anywere in the English-speaking world.”— The Boston Globe Who could have suspecte...

The Deep Blue Good-by e-book Download

The Deep Blue Good-by

John D. MacDonald & Lee ChildAugust 12, 1982$1.99

From a beloved master of crime fiction, The Deep Blue Good-by is one of many classic novels featuring Travis McGee, the hard-boiled detective who lives on a houseboat.   Travis McGee is...

People We Meet on Vacation e-book Download

People We Meet on Vacation

Emily HenryMay 11, 2021$9.99

THE #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER!  Named a Most Anticipated Book of 2021 by Newsweek ∙ Oprah Magazine ∙ The Skimm ∙ Marie Claire ∙ Parade ∙ The Wall Street Journal ∙ Chicago...

Redhead by the Side of the Road e-book Download

Redhead by the Side of the Road

Anne TylerApril 7, 2020$1.99

LONGLISTED FOR THE BOOKER PRIZE From the beloved Anne Tyler, a sparkling new novel—an instant New York Times bestseller—about misperception, second chances, and the sometimes elusive pow...

The Girl You Left Behind e-book Download

The Girl You Left Behind

Jojo MoyesAugust 20, 2013$2.99

From the New York Times bestselling author of  The Giver of Stars , a sweeping bestseller of love and loss, deftly weaving two journeys from World War I France to present day London. Pa...

Courage e-book Download

Courage

Kristen ProbyJune 22, 2021$4.99

From New York Times Bestselling author Kristen Proby comes an all new novel in her Big Sky series, Courage. This is the first story in the Heroes of Big Sky, all about men in uniform in Cunn...

The Secret of Love e-book Download

The Secret of Love

Cynthia WrightDecember 26, 2016$0.99

From New York Times and USA Today bestselling author Cynthia Wright comes a captivating full-length novel in the Rakes & Rebels series! A STOLEN HEART When Lady Isabella Trevarre first l...

That Summer e-book Download

That Summer

Jennifer WeinerMay 11, 2021$14.99

INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “Weiner, the undisputed boss of the beach read, is back with another stunner.” — The New York Times “ That Summer Is Your *IDEAL* Beach Read.” —...

All The Little Things e-book Download

All The Little Things

Sarah LawtonMarch 25, 2021$0.99

Never trust anyone. Never trust yourself. Rachel  has made poor decisions in the past, but she has always tried her best for her daughter. When Vivian needed a fresh start, Rachel didn...

Sooley e-book Download

Sooley

John GrishamApril 27, 2021$14.99

NEW YORK TIMES BEST SELLER • John Grisham takes you to a different kind of court in his first basketball novel. Samuel “Sooley” Sooleymon is a raw, young talent with big hoop dreams—...

The President's Daughter e-book Download

The President's Daughter

James Patterson & Bill ClintonJune 7, 2021$14.99

All Presidents have nightmares.  This one is about to come true. A rocket ride of a thriller—the #1  New York Times  bestselling blockbuster by President Bill Clinton and Ja...

My Lovely Wife e-book Download

My Lovely Wife

Samantha DowningMarch 26, 2019$1.99

SOON TO BE A MAJOR MOTION PICTURE INSTANT #1 INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER USA Today bestseller  Edgar + ITW Thriller Award nominee for Best First Novel “Think: Dexter but sexier.”— th...

The Summer House e-book Download

The Summer House

Jenny HaleJune 9, 2017$0.99

Some summers will stay with you forever... Callie Weaver  and best friend Olivia Dixon have finally done it: put their life savings into the beach house they admired through childhood s...

Golden Girl e-book Download

Golden Girl

Elin HilderbrandJune 1, 2021$14.99

In this satisfying page-turner from "the queen of beach reads" ( New York Magazine ), a Nantucket novelist has one final summer to protect her secrets while her loved ones on earth learn to ...

Ghost Of A Chance e-book Download

Ghost Of A Chance

Cynthia EdenJanuary 21, 2020$0.99

How well do you know the lover in your bed?  It was the hottest hookup of her life. When Tess Barrett spent the night in the arms of the too sexy to be real stranger, she knew she was w...

Local Woman Missing e-book Download

Local Woman Missing

Mary KubicaMay 18, 2021$12.99

"Dark and twisty, with white-knuckle tension and jaw-dropping surprises." —Riley Sager, New York Times bestselling author of Home Before Dark In this smart and chilling thri...

How Much I Love e-book Download

How Much I Love

Marie ForceJune 22, 2021$4.99

Wyatt My name is Wyatt Blake. I'm a cardiothoracic surgeon in Phoenix. When I was 17, I had a heart transplant that saved my life. That's not something I tell just anyone, because I hate bei...

Noxx e-book Download

Noxx

Tasha BlackJanuary 7, 2021$0.99

The Alien Adoption Agency is going to make all of Luna’s dreams come true. At least, that’s what Luna believes when she boards a rickety space craft headed for a frontier moon to meet th...

The Silent Patient e-book Download

The Silent Patient

Alex MichaelidesFebruary 5, 2019$12.99

**THE INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER** "An unforgettable—and Hollywood-bound—new thriller... A mix of Hitchcockian suspense, Agatha Christie plotting, and Greek tragedy." — Enter...

Papa Hemingway e-book Download

Papa Hemingway

A. E. HotchnerApril 17, 2018$1.99

An intimate, joy-filled portrait and New York Times bestseller, written by one of Hemingway’s closest friends: “It is hard to imagine a better biography” ( Life ). In 1948, A. E. Hotch...

The Paris Spy e-book Download

The Paris Spy

Susan Elia MacNealAugust 8, 2017$1.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • American-born spy and code-breaker extraordinaire Maggie Hope secretly navigates Nazi-occupied France to find two brave women during the darkest days of World W...

Best Seller Alissa C Grosso Audio Books of June 2021

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