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The California Battalion (also called the first California Volunteer Militia and U.S. Mounted Rifles) was formed during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848) in present-day California, United States. It was led by U.S. Army Brevet Lieutenant Colonel John C. Fremont and composed of his cartographers, scouts and hunters and the California Volunteer Militia formed after the Bear Flag Revolt. The battalion's formation was officially authorized by Commodore Robert F. Stockton, commanding officer of the U.S. Navy Pacific Squadron. Formation Hostilities between U.S. and Mexican forces had been underway in Texas since April 1846 resulting in a formal declaration of war on 13 May 1846, by the U.S. Congress. On 17 May 1846, unofficial word reached the U.S. Navy fleet of four vessels at anchor in the harbor of Mazatlán, Mexico, and that hostilities had begun between Mexico and the United States. Commodore John D. Sloat, commander of the U.S. Navy's Pacific Squadron, dispatched his flagship, the frigate USS Savannah, and the Sloop USS Levant to Monterey harbor where they arrived on 2 July 1846. The Pacific Squadron captured Monterey, California on 7 July 1846 and began taking over the ports in Alta California. The Bear Flag Revolt was converted into a U.S. occupation of California and the Bear Flag was replaced by the Stars and Stripes. In 1846, U.S. Marine Lieutenant Archibald H. Gillespie was sent by President James K. Polk with secret verbal messages to the U.S. Consul Thomas O. Larkin in Alta California's Capital in Monterey, Commodore John D. Sloat commanding the Pacific Squadron and U.S. Army Captain John C. Frémont doing cartography work in California. Traveling secretly across Mexico, Lt. Gillespe caught a ship from Mexico to Monterey, California where he delivered his messages to Thomas Larkin and Sloat. Finding that Fremont was on his way to Oregon he borrowed a horse and hurried north where he caught up with Fremont's party near what is now the Oregon border. After delivering his messages, Gillespie and Frémont with his about 30 U.S. Army Cartographers, etc. and 30 scouts and hunters turned around and headed back to California where Frémont spurred on and took over the command of the Bear Flag Revolt of California. Frémont signed up American immigrants into California at Sutter's Fort who were willing to fight for independence from Mexico. Frémont was the only army officer in California after the outbreak of the Mexican–American War. He and his volunteer California battalion took over Sonoma, followed by the creation of the Bear Flag Republic. When it became clear that the U.S. Navy was taking action to secure California, the Bear Flag Revolt was converted into a U.S. military action. Since there was no U.S. Army present in Alta California except Fremont's few cartographers (and wouldn't be until December 1846), Stockton needed additional men to garrison and help keep the peace in the various California towns rapidly coming into U.S. control. Stockton had three frigates with a crew of 480 each, three to four sloops with a crew of 200 men each plus three store ships at his disposal. The marines on his ships were used mostly to board or repel boarders or engage in close in ship to ship fighting and were trained in infantry tactics. The marines and some sailors could be reassigned shore duties and while leaving the ships short handed but still functional. He looked to employ his reassigned 300-400 marines and blue-jacket sailors only where needed. Battalion in Mexican American War The California Battalion was officially authorized a few days later on 23 July 1846 under Commodore Robert F. Stockton (U.S. Navy), the senior military officer in California who replaced Sloat in July 1846. Frémont was given the (brevet) rank of Lieutenant Colonel with U. S. Marine Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie, second in command, promoted to major. Commodore Stockton was in charge of the Pacific Squadron of the U.S. Navy that occupied Monterey, California on 7 July 1846 and Yerba Buena (to be renamed San Francisco) on 9 July 1846. A compact was drawn in early July 1846 for all volunteers to sign, which in part read: "Not to violate the chastity of Women; conduct their revolution honorably; and pledge obedience to their officers." With the signatures or marks of the men, the California Battalion was formed. On formation of the battalion, Frémont requested the Battalion's volunteers to elect their officers from the ranks. Most were emigrants over the California Trail of 1845 and members of Fremont's own exploration party. Frémont's men were officially mustered into the armed forces on 23 July 1846 and authorized $25.00/month pay. The approximate 34 Mission Indians eventually part of the battalion's roster were paid with trade goods as was customary then. The men in the battalion were all volunteers formed from the 60 men of Captain Frémont's Corps of Topographical Engineers (roughly half were soldiers the rest Indians and mountain men) and initially from the Bear Flag Republic members from Sutter's Fort who had started the rebellion in California. There were volunteers from several nationalities including several Californios and a company of Indians from Sutter's Fort who were more than happy to get rid of the dysfunctional Mexican and Californios government.The first job given to the California Battalion and was to assist in the capture of San Diego and Pueblo de Los Angeles. On 26 July 1846 Lt. Col. J. C. Frémont's California Battalion of about 160 boarded the sloop USS Cyane, under the command of Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont, and sailed for San Diego. They landed 29 July 1846 and a detachment of Marines and blue-jackets, followed shortly by Frémont's California Battalion from Cyane, landed and took possession of the town without firing a shot. Leaving about 40 men to garrison San Diego, Fremont continued on to Los Angeles where on 13 August, with the Navy band playing and colors flying, the combined forces of Stockton and Frémont entered Pueblo de Los Angeles, without a man killed nor shot fired. Marine Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie, Frémont's second in command, was appointed military commander of Los Angeles with from 30 to 50 troops stationed there to keep the peace. In Pueblo de Los Angeles, the largest city in California with about 3,000 residents, things might have remained peaceful, except that Major Gillespie placed the town under martial law, greatly angering some of the Californios. On 23 September 1846, about 200-300 Californios under Gen. José María Flores staged a revolt, the Siege of Los Angeles, and exchanged shots with the Americans in their quarters at the Government House. Gillespie and his men withdrew from their headquarters in town to Fort Hill which, unfortunately, had no water. Gillespie was caught in a trap, badly outnumbered by the besiegers. John Brown, an American, called by the Californios Juan Flaco, meaning "Lean John", succeeded.... Discover the Alta Hensley popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Alta Hensley books.

Best Seller Alta Hensley Books of August 2021

Delicate Scars book summary, reviews and downlod

Delicate Scars

0/5$3.99

I was going to ruin her.  I knew it the moment I laid eyes on her. She was too naive, too innocent.  I would wrap her in the darkness of my world ...

Beasts & Bourbon book summary, reviews and downlod

Beasts & Bourbon

4.5/5$4.99

My royal blood flows black with twisted secrets. I am a beast who wears a crown. Heir to a modern kingdom cloaked in corruption and depravities.   The tim...

Sinners & Gin book summary, reviews and downlod

Sinners & Gin

4/5$4.99

My power is absolute. My rules are law. Structure. Obedience. Discipline.  I am in charge, and what I say goes. Black and white with no gray.

Taken Bride book summary, reviews and downlod

Taken Bride

0/5Pre-Order

Secrets must be kept. Vows never broken.  Till death do us part… Unless everything changes. Captive in one life… Kept in another… Taken t...

Elegant Sins book summary, reviews and downlod

Elegant Sins

5/5$4.99

Welcome to the luxurious, opulent Oleander Mansion, where powerful men play out their most secret, sinful fantasies…   I'm stuck in a Southern mansion with the extremely w...

Luxure & Whisky book summary, reviews and downlod

Luxure & Whisky

0/5$5.99

Je fréquente les présidents, la royauté, les magnats de l’industrie et les plus riches parmi les plus riches de ce monde. On nous trouve à La Rose et Les Épines, un...

Prima book summary, reviews and downlod

Prima

0/5$4.99

She was an angel when she danced. Too bad she attracted the attention of the devil. She was so innocent and naïve. Not meant for the cruel realities of this world. C...

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Bastardi & Whisky

0/5$6.99

Siedo tra i presidenti, i reali, i capitani d'industria, e gli stronzi più ricchi del mondo. Possediamo Spiked Roses, un esclusivo club per soli membri a New Orleans, ...

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Malice héréditaire

0/5Pre-Order

Je suis une arnaqueuse, et mon objectif est de sŽduire Beau Radcliffe. Mais il a fait l’erreur, un soir d’ d’ Alors j’ai volŽ une invitation et je me suis p...

Opulente Obsession book summary, reviews and downlod

Opulente Obsession

0/5$5.99

Mais qu’est-ce qu’elle fiche ici, bon sang ? Fallon Perry est mon amie d’enfance, la première fille que j’ai embrassée. Et la perdre au moment où j...

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Péchés élégants

0/5$5.99

Il n’y a rien de plus dangereux qu’un secret… C’est ainsi que les puissants survivent. Ils exercent leur influence dans l’ombre, et leurs péchés pervertissent les inn...

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Mensonges sublimes

0/5$5.99

Société secrète, péchés secrets, au cœur de la dark fantasy. Bienvenue au Manoir des Oléandres… Je suis le fils de mon père, né avec un héritage q...

Scoundrels & Scotch book summary, reviews and downlod

Scoundrels & Scotch

4.5/5$4.99

I’ll stop at nothing to own her.  I’m a collector of dolls.  All kinds of dolls. So beautiful and sexy, they become my art. So ...

Spiked Roses book summary, reviews and downlod

Spiked Roses

3.5/5$9.99

For the first time ever, the bestselling Top Shelf series is available in one collection. Bastards & Whiskey, Villains & Vodka, Scoundrels & Scotch, Devils & Rye, Beast...

Captive Vow book summary, reviews and downlod

Captive Vow

3.5/5$4.99

I take you. To honor and obey. Till death do us part. This is my solemn vow. I am caught in the madness of a deep obsession. Stolen ...

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Noblesse & Bourbon

0/5$5.99

Mon sang royal est noirci par les secrets inavouables. Je suis une bête couronnée. Héritier d’un royaume moderne drapé dans la corruption et la dépravation. L...

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The Truth About Alice

4/5$4.99

The evil lies little girls are told… I had fallen down a dark and forbidden hole. Wonderland. A hole where I had two choices in life—to be a breeder, or to...

Villains & Vodka book summary, reviews and downlod

Villains & Vodka

4/5$4.99

My life is one long fevered dream, balancing between being killed or killing. The name Harley Crow is one to be feared. I am an assassin.  A killer. The villain....

Ténèbres & Pur Malt book summary, reviews and downlod

Ténèbres & Pur Malt

0/5$5.99

Les fruits défendus sont les plus délicieux. Cela faisait des années que je ne l’avais pas vue. Des années que je n’avais pas vu ces yeux à l’innocence pure et s...

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Beautiful Lies

4.5/5$4.99

Welcome to the luxurious, opulent Oleander Mansion, where powerful men play out their most secret, sinful fantasies…   I was born into an inheritance I never wanted. And n...

Kept Bride book summary, reviews and downlod

Kept Bride

0/5$4.99

My history is forbidden. My story, dark and twisted. My future decided.   I know I don’t belong in this decadent world—his world. Money, power, and dar...

Devils & Rye book summary, reviews and downlod

Devils & Rye

5/5$4.99

Forbidden fruit tastes the sweetest.  It had been years since I had seen her. Years since I last saw those eyes with pure, raw innocence. So much time had...

Opulent Obsession book summary, reviews and downlod

Opulent Obsession

0/5$4.99

What is she doing here? Fallon Perry is my childhood best friend, the first girl I ever kissed, and losing her when I needed her the most only added to the worst year of my entir...

Mr. D book summary, reviews and downlod

Mr. D

0/5$3.99

Good girls do not go to the principal’s office. Good girls do not lust for the principal. Good girls do not obsess over the principal. I am clearly not a good girl....

Captive Bride book summary, reviews and downlod

Captive Bride

4/5$4.99

You will take this bride. To have and to hold from this day forward. Till death do you part. This will be your solemn vow.

Bastards & Whiskey book summary, reviews and downlod

Bastards & Whiskey

3.5/5Free

I sit amongst the Presidents, Royalty, the Captains of Industry, and the wealthiest men in the world.  We own Spiked Roses—an exclusive, membership only establishment in N...

Cattivi & Vodka book summary, reviews and downlod

Cattivi & Vodka

0/5$6.99

La mia vita è un lungo sogno convulso, in bilico tra essere ucciso o uccidere. Il nome Harley Crow è da temere. Sono un assassino. Un killer. Il cattivo. Ho s...

Inherited Malice book summary, reviews and downlod

Inherited Malice

5/5$4.99

I’m a con artist, and I’ve got my sights set on Beau Radcliffe. He’s dominant, arrogant, and always thinks he’s the smartest person in the room. But he made the mistake o...

The Truth About Cinder book summary, reviews and downlod

The Truth About Cinder

3.5/5$4.99

The evil lies little girls are told… There are hushed whispers about a wicked and decadent place known as the Palace of Lazar. A prince with insatiable tastes and the women wh...

Idée fixe & Eau-de-vie book summary, reviews and downlod

Idée fixe & Eau-de-vie

0/5$5.99

Je ne reculerai devant rien pour la posséder.  Je suis un collectionneur de poupées.  Toutes sortes de poupées. Si belles et sexy qu’elles en deviennent un a...

Captive Vow book summary, reviews and downlod

Captive Vow

0/5$5.99

Je te prends. Pour t’honorer et t’obéir. Jusqu’à ce que la mort nous sépare. Tels sont mes vœux solennels.   Je suis ...

Fureur & Vodka book summary, reviews and downlod

Fureur & Vodka

0/5$5.99

Ma vie est un long rêve enfiévré, à mi-chemin entre tuer et être tué. Le nom de Harley Crow est synonyme de crainte. Je suis un assassin. Un tueur. Le méchant ...

Best Seller Alta Hensley Audio Books of August 2021

Scoundrels & Scotch: Top Shelf, Book 3 (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Scoundrels & Scotch: Top Shelf, Book 3 (Unabridged)

Erotica$16.99

I'll stop at nothing to own her.I'm a collector of dolls. All kinds of dolls.So beautiful and sexy, they become my art. So perfect and flawless, my art ga...

Opulent Obsession (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Opulent Obsession (Unabridged)

Romance$17.99

I’m an imposter, a fraud, unwanted...but that won’t stop me from claiming her. She is part of a tortured past I’d rather forget. A flesh and blood ghost here to haunt me for my sins.&#...

Captive Vow (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Captive Vow (Unabridged)

Romance$17.99

I take you. To honor and obey. Till death do us part. This is my solemn vow. I am caught in the madness of a deep obsession. Stolen away to be...

The Nanny (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

The Nanny (Unabridged)

Romance$17.99

The taboo. The secret. The discipline The nanny. Finally, her story. When street urchin Georgiana Hayes meets a mysterious gentleman who offers her a warm meal and a ...

Little Secrets (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Little Secrets (Unabridged)

Romance$17.99

Philip Hartley runs an elite finishing school, Ashby Chateau, which turns young women into perfectly submissive little ones. He has been zealous about discretion, ensuring that only those wo...

Villains & Vodka: Top Shelf, Book 2 MP3 Audiobook

Villains & Vodka: Top Shelf, Book 2

Romance$16.99

My life is one long fevered dream, balancing between being killed or killing. The name Harley Crow is one to be feared. I am an assassin. A killer. The villain. I own it. I choose this life....

Elegant Sins (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Elegant Sins (Unabridged)

Romance$17.99

There is nothing more dangerous than a secret.... It is how the powerful survive. They spin their influence in the shadows as their sins corrupt the innocent. And I am on...

Bastards & Whiskey: Top Shelf, Book 1 MP3 Audiobook

Bastards & Whiskey: Top Shelf, Book 1

Romance$16.99

I sit amongst the Presidents, Royalty, the Captains of Industry, and the wealthiest fucks in the world.We own Spiked Roses—an exclusive, membership only establishment in New Or...

Enrolling Little Etta (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Enrolling Little Etta (Unabridged)

Romance$12.99

Philip Hartley owns an elite finishing school; a hidden gem that focuses on the sexual submission and complete discipline of young ladies. Behavior, expectations, and beliefs are quite diffe...

Beautiful Lies: A Dark Secret Society Romance (Breaking Belles) (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Beautiful Lies: A Dark Secret Society Romance (Breaking Belles) (Unabridged)

Romance$17.99

Twenty Beautiful Lies stand before me. I can feel one’s hatred from across the ballroom. She loathes me and all that I stand for...that’s why she will be my choice, my be...

Devils & Rye MP3 Audiobook

Devils & Rye

Romance$16.99

Forbidden fruit tastes the sweetest. It had been years since I had seen her. Years since I last saw those eyes with pure, raw innocence. So much time had passed since I lusted a...

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