C Gockel Biography & Facts
Rudolph Goclenius the Elder (Latin: Rudolphus Goclenius; born Rudolf Gockel or Göckel; 1 March 1547 – 8 June 1628) was a German scholastic philosopher. Gockel is often credited with coining the term "psychology" in 1590, though the term had been used by Marko Marulić at least 66 years earlier. Gockel had extensive backing, and made significant contributions to the field of ontology. He extended the development of many ideas from Aristotle. Several of Gockel's ideas were published and built upon by later philosophers.
He was born in Korbach, Waldeck (now in Waldeck-Frankenberg, Hesse).
He attended the universities at the University of Erfurt, the University of Marburg and the University of Wittenberg, where he finished his studies with a M.A. in 1571. In the following years he directed the gymnasiums in his hometown Korbach (1573) and in Kassel (Michaelmas 1575). In 1581, Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel, who was a reputed astronomer, refused his wish to return to Korbach, but allowed him to be appointed professor at the Philipps University of Marburg, where he had the chairs of physics, logic, mathematics and ethics. He served as a counsellor to Wilhelm and his son Moritz. The latter sent him in 1618 to the Synod of Dort.Although he popularized the term "psychology," his major contribution was to the field of ontology. As a follower of Aristotle's work, Gockel gave the philosophy a name and continued in Aristotle's way of thinking. The philosophical discipline of Ontology is thought to have been developed in the 17th century by Goclenius.Goclenius became the subject of a satirical text by Johann Balthasar Schupp. According to Schupp, Goclenius said in his old age that his Analecta [Lichae 1598] was the best book of all he has ever written.Jeremias Nicolai, a student at Korbach Stadtschule from Autumn 1574 onwards, brother of Philipp Nicolai, reported that Goclenius "immediately" wrote a poem about "fiery air phenomena" (feurige Lufterscheinungen) that were seen in the city on November 14, 1574. It was published in Marburg the same year. City historian Wolfgang Medding has conjectured that the phenomena which provided the inspiration for Goclenius' poem might have been an aurora, an assumption which is supported by historical data. Later, he treated auroras ("chasmata") in a Physics textbook of 1604.Goclenius died of a stroke in Marburg on June 8, 1628. In his funeral speech on June 10, Wolfgang Loriseca called Goclenius a "leader of today's philosophers, Marburgian Plato, European light, Hessian immortal glory".
Goclenius married his first wife, Margarethe, in 1570. Abraham Saur, a jurist in Marburg, recorded in his chronicle for the 10th of April:
M. Rudolphus Goclerius [sic] holds wedding. On this day / in the year of Christ 1570. as the Sun went into the Sign of Taurus / of which the Astrologers say / that it would be good to marry / M. Rudolphus Goclerius [sic] / a young learned Man and Poet / held his wedding in Korbach.
From this marriage his oldest son, Rudolph Goclenius the Younger, or Rudolf Goclenius, Jr. was born who became a professor in Marburg and a celebrated mathematician. It is after Rudolph Goclenius, Jr., that the lunar crater is named. He also worked on cures against the plague. He became famous for his miraculous cure with the "weapon salve" or Powder of Sympathy. Other descendants were Theodor Christoph Goclenius (1602-1673, Medicine), Eduard Franz Goclenius (1643-1721, Law) and Reinhard Goclenius (1678-1726, Law).
From his dispute with Wilhelm Adolph Scribonius of Marburg on the legality of the ordeal by water in witch trials, one can deduce that Goclenius was convinced on the existence of witchcraft and adhered to the "Hexenhammer".
His views reflected those of Aristotle. His philosophies belonged to a group called “Semiramists,” which was a group of Aristotelians who believed in advocating dialectic interpretation of Aristotle's learning, but also advocating the exposition of Ramism. While he was still a rector at Korbach Stadtschule Goclenius composed a scholarly poem on Ramus' death. In a letter written by Friedrich Beurhusius to Johann Thomas Freigius in September 1575, Goclenius was mentioned as a devotee to Ramus alongside other schoolmen such as Johann Lambach and Bernhard Copius.Goclenius is reported to have said that Aristotle, Scaliger (whose Exercitationes he called his Bible), Zabarella, Schegk are all that is needed to fill up the bookstand of philosophers.
In his "Philosophical Inquiries", published in 1599, Goclenius provides a synoptic table that subdivides the philosophical doctrines, or liberal arts, into special domains of knowledge. It is useful for the classification of his works to a certain point. He used the term ontology in his Lexicon philosophicum (1613) which was coined by Jacob Lorhard in his Ogdoas Scholastica (1606).
Goclenius’ major contributions also included publications which led to the term psychology. In two academic disputations presided by Goclenius at Marburg University in 1586 the word "psychology" appears as an adjective ("psychologicae"). His anthology Psychologia: hoc est, de hominis perfectione, animo, et in primis ortu hujus published in 1590 is the first book to contain the word "psychology" in the title. The Psychologia of 1590 (a second printing was issued in 1594) contains mostly excerpts from treatises written between 1579 and 1589. The book's title translates to English as, "Psychology: that is, on the perfection of man, his mind, and especially its origin, the comments and discussions of certain theologians & philosophers of our time who are shown on the turned page." Here, the term psychology refers to both a subject of inquiry ("the perfection of man, his mind, and especially its origin") and the inquiry itself ("the comments and discussions of certain theologians & philosophers of our time"). In the 17th century, Goclenius' Psychologia was read and quoted by scholars like Robert Burton, Daniel Sennert and Jakob Thomasius. Goclenius himself returned to his Psychologia in a textbook on natural science of 1604 and in some philosophical disputations.Goclenius' crowning achievement is his original contribution made to term logic, called the Goclenian Sorites. In the words of the British logician Carveth Read:
"It is the shining merit of Goclenius to have restored the Premises of the Sorites to the usual order of Fig. I.: whereby he has raised to himself a monument more durable than brass, and secured indeed the very cheapest immortality. How expensive, compared with this, was the method of the Ephesian incendiary!"
An example for the use of sorites in an argumentative context is presented by Goclenius in his "Dissertatio De Ortu Animi" which concludes the first edition of the Psychologia.
Bibliographies of Goclenius' writings were prepared by F. W. Strieder and by F. J. Schmidt (see below). His list of publication.... Discover the C Gockel popular books. Find the top 100 most popular C Gockel books.