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The Talmud (; Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד‎ Tálmūḏ) is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving also as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews.The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi). It may also traditionally be called Shas (ש״ס‎), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah. The Talmud has two components; the Mishnah (משנה‎, c. 200 CE), a written compendium of the Oral Torah; and the Gemara (גמרא‎, c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah and Gemara together. The entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, and in the standard print, called the Vilna Shas, there are 2,711 double-sided folios. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis (dating from before the Common Era through to the fifth century) on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, philosophy, customs, history, and folklore, and many other topics. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature. Etymology Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from the Semitic root LMD, meaning "teach, study". History Originally, Jewish scholarship was oral and transferred from one generation to the next. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah (the written Torah expressed in the Hebrew Bible) and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes (megillot setarim), for example, of court decisions. This situation changed drastically due to the Roman destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea, the Roman province, without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained. It is during this period that rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing.The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud (Codex Hebraicus 95), dates from 1342 and is available online. Babylonian and Jerusalem The process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were then the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Galilee and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud or the Talmud Yerushalmi. It was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500, although it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently; Louis Jacobs writes, "If the editors of either had had access to an actual text of the other, it is inconceivable that they would not have mentioned this. Here the argument from silence is very convincing." Jerusalem Talmud The Jerusalem Talmud, also known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias, Sepphoris, and Caesarea. It is written largely in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart.This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee (principally those of Tiberias and Caesarea.) Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to the analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi ("Jerusalem Talmud"), but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more accurately been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". The eye and the heart are two abettors to the crime. Its final redaction probably belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325 Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an outcast and pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud consequently lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended. The text is evidently incomplete and is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination. Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Just as wisdom has made a crown for one's head, so, too, humility has made a sole for one's foot. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important primary source for the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides. Ethical maxims contained in the Jerusalem Talmud are scattered and interspersed in the legal discussions throughout the several treatises, many of which differing from those in the Babylonian Talmud.Following the formation of the modern state of Israel there is some interest in restoring Eretz Yisrael traditions. For example, rabbi David Bar-Hayim of the Makhon Shilo institute has issued a siddur reflecting Eretz Yisrael practice as found .... Discover the Carl And Ruth Shapiro Family National Ce popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Carl And Ruth Shapiro Family National Ce books.

Best Seller Carl And Ruth Shapiro Family National Ce Books of December 2021

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

Flying Angels e-book Download

Flying Angels

Danielle SteelNovember 23, 2021$14.99

World War II brings together six remarkable young flight nurses, who face the challenges of war and its many heartbreaks and victories as unsung heroes, in this inspiring novel from #1 New Y...

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Sold on a Monday

Kristina McMorrisAugust 28, 2018$15.99

A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A USA TODAY BESTSELLER A WALL STREET JOURNAL BESTSELLER A NATIONAL INDIEBOUND BESTSELLER An unforgettable bestselling historical fiction novel by Kristina McMorri...

Trick or Treat e-book Download

Trick or Treat

Katerina DiamondOctober 14, 2021$0.99

‘Stunningly brilliant… Full of more twists and turns than the best ever rollercoaster, with an epic ending’ NetGalley review ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ TRICK OR TREAT? When six-year-old Marc...

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Dream Keeper

Kristen AshleyNovember 30, 2021$6.99

Spinning off from the bestselling Dream Man and Rock Chick series, this is the emotional and steamy contemporary romance fans of the Dream Team series have been waiting for! He’s perfect...

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Atlas of the Heart

Brené BrownNovember 30, 2021$14.99

In her latest book, five-time #1 New York Times bestselling author Dr. Brené Brown writes, “If we want to find the way back to ourselves and one another, we need language and the grounded...

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Go Tell the Bees That I Am Gone

Diana GabaldonNovember 23, 2021$15.99

#1 New York Times bestselling author Diana Gabaldon returns with the newest novel in the epic Outlander series.   The past may seem the safest place to be . . . but it is the most dange...

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Brothers and Wives

Christopher AndersenNovember 30, 2021$14.99

Featuring unreported details and stunning revelations, the long-awaited follow-up to the “fabulous, addictive” ( Chicago Sun-Times ) New York Times bestseller Diana’s Boys explores the...

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False Witness

Karin SlaughterJuly 20, 2021$12.99

INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER "There's deception, sabotage, violence, family secrets . . . all the stuff you could want from a fictional page-turner."— theSkimm  Recommended ...

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The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$13.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TODAY * ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY * CNN * TOWN & ...

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King of Battle and Blood

Scarlett St. ClairNovember 30, 2021$6.99

From fan-favorite Scarlett St. Clair, the bestselling author of the Hades & Persephone series, comes a new epic fantasy filled with danger, darkness, and insatiable romance.  Their ...

Leviathan Falls e-book Download

Leviathan Falls

James S. A. CoreyNovember 30, 2021$14.99

The biggest science fiction series of the decade comes to an incredible conclusion in the ninth and final novel in James S.A. Corey’s Hugo-award winning space opera that inspired the Prime...

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A Season of Angels

Debbie MacomberJune 28, 2011$1.99

From the #1 New York Times and USA Today bestselling author Debbie Macomber comes a beautiful repackage of the classic novel that started it all. Wishes for love bring hope from above. Shirl...

Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order e-book Download

Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order

Ray DalioNovember 30, 2021$16.99

“A provocative read...There are few tomes that coherently map such broad economic histories as well as Mr. Dalio’s. Perhaps more unusually, Mr. Dalio has managed to identify metrics from...

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Air Fry Every Day

Ben MimsAugust 28, 2018$1.99

The go-to air fryer cookbook with 75 recipes for your favorite indulgences—faster, healthier, and crispier!   “You won’t believe all the fun and inventive things the air fryer can...

The Wish e-book Download

The Wish

Nicholas SparksSeptember 28, 2021$7.99

With exclusive travel photos and a special letter from the Author, only available for e-readers. From the author of The Longest Ride and The Return comes a novel about the enduring legacy of...

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Vortex

Catherine CoulterAugust 10, 2021$14.99

#1 New York Times bestselling Catherine Coulter returns with a brilliant new novel in her FBI thriller series, in which agents Sherlock and Savich find themselves dealing with very...

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The Four Winds

Kristin HannahFebruary 2, 2021$14.99

From the number-one bestselling author of The Nightingale and The Great Alone comes a powerful American epic about love and heroism and hope, set during the Great Depression, a time when the...

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The Stranger in the Lifeboat

Mitch AlbomNovember 2, 2021$11.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller What would happen if we called on God for help and God actually appeared? In Mitch Albom’s profound new novel of hope and faith, a group of shipwrecked passeng...

Laptop from Hell e-book Download

Laptop from Hell

Miranda DevineNovember 30, 2021$14.99

As seen on  Tucker Carlson Tonight !   The inside story of the laptop that exposed the president’s dirtiest secret. When a drug-addled Hunter Biden abandoned his waterlogged comp...

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Just Home for the Holidays

Deborah CookeDecember 10, 2020$0.99

Chloe has plans… Running the finances at Flatiron Five Fitness West is steadily making her goal of financial independence come true. Returning to New York for Christmas should be routine, ...

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The Dark Hours

Michael ConnellyNovember 9, 2021$14.99

“A masterpiece”—LAPD detective Renée Ballard must join forces with Harry Bosch to find justice in a city scarred by fear and social unrest after a methodical killer strikes on Ne...

Cake and Punishment e-book Download

Cake and Punishment

Maymee BellMay 8, 2018$0.99

In the first of a delectable new Southern-set baking cozy series, a pastry chef must craft the perfect cake for an old friend’s wedding while sifting through the suspects in a murder Bucol...

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The Becoming

Nora RobertsNovember 23, 2021$14.99

A new epic of love and war among gods and humans, from the #1 New York Times bestselling author of The Awakening. The world of magick and the world of man have long been estranged from one a...

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The Eye of the World

Robert JordanSeptember 15, 2000$10.99

Now an original series starring Rosamund Pike as Moiraine! The first novel in Robert Jordan's #1 New York Times bestselling epic fantasy series, The Wheel of Time®. The Wheel of Time turns ...

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The Lost Sister

Kathleen McGurlMay 12, 2021$0.99

‘I was captivated… What a stunning story of sisterhood, sacrifice and forgiveness!’ Lana Kortchik, USA Today bestselling author of Sisters of War Three sisters. Three ships. One heartb...

Pandemia e-book Download

Pandemia

Alex BerensonNovember 30, 2021$14.99

The most important fact about the coronavirus pandemic that turned the world upside down in 2020 is that our response to it has been an epic overreaction driven by a disastrous confluence of...

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The Love Hypothesis

Ali HazelwoodSeptember 14, 2021$9.99

The Instant New York Times Bestseller! As seen on THE VIEW! A BuzzFeed Best Summer Read of 2021 When a fake relationship between scientists meets the irresistible force of attraction, it thr...

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God Bless This Mess

Hannah BrownNovember 23, 2021$14.99

“My life was a complete mess, and God bless all of it. Because it’s in the messes where we learn the most—as long as we slow down enough to realize what God is trying to show us....

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St. Peter’s Mystery

Jeroen WindmeijerSeptember 16, 2021$0.99

The brand new unmissable adventure novel for fans of Scott Mariani, Dan Brown and Daniel Silva ‘The ingenious construction of the ivory box would ensure that neither wind nor water, earth ...

Autopsy e-book Download

Autopsy

Patricia CornwellNovember 30, 2021$14.99

In this relaunch of the electrifying, landmark #1 bestselling thriller series, chief medical examiner Dr. Kay Scarpetta hunts those responsible for two wildly divergent and chilling murders....

The Complete Wheel of Time Series Set (1-14) e-book Download

The Complete Wheel of Time Series Set (1-14)

Robert JordanOctober 28, 2020$39.99

Soon to be an original series starring Rosamund Pike as Moiraine! The Wheel of Time®, Robert Jordan's internationally bestselling fantasy series, has captured the imaginations of millions o...

Verity e-book Download

Verity

Colleen HooverOctober 5, 2021$7.99

A "sublimely creepy" psychological thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Colleen Hoover (Tarryn Fisher, New York Times bestselling author). Lowen Ashleigh is a struggling writer...

Fear No Evil e-book Download

Fear No Evil

James PattersonNovember 22, 2021$14.99

Alex Cross enters the final battle with the all-knowing genius who has stalked him and his family for years. Dr. Alex Cross and Detective John Sampson venture into the rugged Montana wildern...

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The Real Anthony Fauci

Robert F. KennedyNovember 16, 2021$2.99

#1 on AMAZON, and a NEW YORK TIMES, WALL STREET JOURNAL, and USA TODAY NATIONAL BESTSELLER Pharma-funded mainstream media has convinced millions of Americans that Dr. Anthony Fauci is a hero...

The Lincoln Highway e-book Download

The Lincoln Highway

Amor TowlesOctober 5, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A TODAY Show Read with Jenna Book Club Pick A New York Times Notable Book, and Chosen by Oprah Quarterly and The Washington Post as a Best Book of the Year “Wi...

In a Holidaze e-book Download

In a Holidaze

Christina LaurenOctober 6, 2020$1.99

THE INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER One Christmas wish, two brothers, and a lifetime of hope are on the line for hapless Maelyn Jones in In a Holidaze , the quintessential holiday romantic...

Love is Blind e-book Download

Love is Blind

Lynsay SandsJune 8, 2010$1.99

“Lynsay Sands spins a funny, laughable tale.” —Eloisa James on Taming the Highland Bride Adrian Montfort, Earl of Mowbray, had been warned that Lady Clarissa Crambray was dangerous. Fr...

Someone Perfect e-book Download

Someone Perfect

Mary BaloghNovember 30, 2021$8.99

Sometimes, just one person can pull a whole family apart. And sometimes, it just takes one person to pull it back together.  For fans of Bridgerton, New York Times  bestselling Reg...

Mercy e-book Download

Mercy

David BaldacciNovember 16, 2021$14.99

The #1 New York Times bestselling author with 150 million copies sold worldwide returns with his next blockbuster thriller featuring FBI Agent Atlee Pine.

The Brothers Karamazov e-book Download

The Brothers Karamazov

Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Richard Pevear & Larissa VolokhonskyJune 14, 2002$2.99

Winner of the Pen/Book-of-the-Month Club Translation Prize The Brothers Karamasov is a murder mystery, a courtroom drama, and an exploration of erotic rivalry in a series of triangular love ...

The Judge's List e-book Download

The Judge's List

John GrishamOctober 19, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BEST SELLER • Investigator Lacy Stoltz follows the trail of a serial killer, and closes in on a shocking suspect—a sitting judge—in “one of the best crime reads of ...

Never e-book Download

Never

Ken FollettNovember 9, 2021$15.99

New York Times Bestseller The new must-read epic from master storyteller Ken Follett: more than a thriller, it’s an action-packed, globe-spanning drama set in the present day.   “A ...

Wish You Were Here e-book Download

Wish You Were Here

Jodi PicoultNovember 30, 2021$14.99

From the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Small Great Things and The Book of Two Ways comes “a powerfully evocative story of resilience and the triumph of the human spirit” (...

All About Me! e-book Download

All About Me!

Mel BrooksNovember 30, 2021$14.99

At 95, the legendary Mel Brooks continues to set the standard for comedy across television, film, and the stage. Now he shares his story for the first time in “a wonderful additi...

Better Off Dead e-book Download

Better Off Dead

Lee Child & Andrew ChildOctober 26, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Jack Reacher is back in a brand-new page-turning thriller from acclaimed #1 bestselling authors Lee Child and Andrew Child. Digging graves had not been part ...

The Anomaly e-book Download

The Anomaly

Hervé Le Tellier & Adriana HunterNovember 23, 2021$10.99

NAMED A BEST MYSTERY/THRILLER OF THE YEAR BY PUBLISHERS WEEKLY , A BEST MYSTERY/THRILLER OF THE MONTH BY POPSUGAR , AND A MOST ANTICIPATED READ OF THE YEAR BY CRIMEREADS   Winner of the...

The Midnight Lock e-book Download

The Midnight Lock

Jeffery DeaverNovember 30, 2021$14.99

The "master of ticking-bomb suspense" ( People ) Jeffery Deaver delivers the latest thriller featuring his beloved protagonists Lincoln Rhyme and Amelia Sachs as they search for a criminal w...

Broken French e-book Download

Broken French

Tasha BoydApril 26, 2021$0.99

Take a decadent and sizzling armchair vacation to the South of France this summer …  Natasha Boyd is back! Writing decadent romance as TASHA BOYD Josie thought she was getting a promo...

The Unaffected Earl e-book Download

The Unaffected Earl

Suzanna MedeirosSeptember 11, 2018$0.99

Can she thaw the ice that encases his heart? They call him the Unaffected Earl… Many seek his favor, men and women alike, but few glimpse what lies beneath the Earl of Brantford’s aloof ...

Best Seller Carl And Ruth Shapiro Family National Ce Audio Books of December 2021

Will (Unabridged) audiobook
Will (Unabridged)Will Smith$19.99

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Pandemia: How Coronavirus Hysteria Took Over Our Government, Rights, and Lives (Unabridged) audiobook
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Laptop from Hell: Hunter Biden, Big Tech, and the Dirty Secrets the President Tried to Hide (Unabridged) audiobook
Laptop from Hell: Hunter Biden, Big Tech, and the Dirty Secrets the President Tried to Hide (Unabridged)Miranda Devine$17.99

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Greenlights (Unabridged)Matthew McConaughey$14.99

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God Bless This MessHannah Brown$16.99

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Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged) audiobook
Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged)James Clear$14.99

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Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged) audiobook
Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged)David Goggins$21.99

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Leviathan Falls audiobook
Leviathan FallsJames S.A. Corey$19.99

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Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged) audiobook
Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged)Robert T. Kiyosaki$12.99

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Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order (Unabridged) audiobook
Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order (Unabridged)Ray Dalio$16.99

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