Etc Montessori Biography & Facts
The Montessori method of education was developed by Italian physician Maria Montessori. Emphasizing independence, it views children as naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a sufficiently supportive and well-prepared learning environment. It discourages some conventional measures of achievement, such as grades and tests. Montessori developed her theories in the early 1900s through scientific experimentation with her students; the method has since been used in many parts of the world, in public and private schools alike.A range of practices exist under the name "Montessori", which is not trademarked in the US. Popular elements include mixed-age classrooms, student freedom (including their choices of activity), long blocks of uninterrupted work time, and specially trained teachers. Scientific studies regarding the Montessori method are mostly positive, with a 2017 review stating that "broad evidence" exists for its efficacy.
Following her medical training, Maria Montessori began developing her educational philosophy and methods in 1897, attending courses in pedagogy at the University of Rome and learning educational theory. While visiting Rome's mental asylums during her schooling with a teacher, Montessori observed that confined children were in need of more stimulation from their environment. In 1907, she opened her first classroom, the Casa dei Bambini, or Children's House, in a tenement building in Rome. From the beginning, Montessori based her work on her observations of children and experimentation with the environment, materials, and lessons available to them. She frequently referred to her work as "scientific pedagogy".
In 1901, Maria Montessori met Alice and Leopoldo Franchetti (Baroness & Baron) of Città di Castello. They found many theories similar between their work. Maria Montessori was invited to hold her first course for teachers and to set up a "Casa dei Bambini" at Villa Montesca, the home of the Franchettis in Città di Castello. Maria Montessori decided to move to Città di Castello, where she lived for two years and where she refined her methodology together with Alice Franchetti. In that period, she published her book in Città di Castello. The Franchetti Barons financed the publication of the book, and the methodology had the name "Method Franchetti-Montessori". Alice Franchetti died in 1911 at the age of 37 years old.
Montessori education had spread to the United States by 1912 and became widely known in educational and popular publications. As well, in 1913 Narcissa Cox Vanderlip and Frank A. Vanderlip founded the Scarborough School, the first Montessori school in the U.S. However, conflict arose between Montessori and the American educational establishment. The 1914 critical booklet The Montessori System Examined, by influential education teacher William Heard Kilpatrick, limited the spread of Montessori's ideas, and they languished after 1914. Montessori education returned to the United States on September 29, 1958 when Nancy McCormick Rambusch and Georgeann Skakel Dowdle opened the Whitby School in Greenwich, Connecticut. As interest grew, Rambusch founded the American Montessori Society (AMS) and the Whitby School became the first certified Montessori teacher training program in the United States. The American Montessori Society is the largest organization in the world dedicated to the Montessori method with more than 1,300 affiliated school and almost 100 teacher-education programs.Montessori education also spread throughout the world, including Southeast Asia and India, where Maria Montessori was interned during World War II.
Montessori education is based on a model of human development. It has two basic principles. First, children and developing adults engage in psychological self-construction by means of interaction with their environments. Second, children (especially under the age of six) have an innate path of psychological development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children who are at liberty to choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model would act spontaneously for optimal development.Although a range of practices exist under the "Montessori" name, the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) cite these elements as essential:
Mixed-age classrooms: classrooms for children ages 2 1⁄2 or 3 to 6 years old are by far the most common, but 0–3, 6–9, 9–12, 12–15, and 15–18-year-old classrooms exist as well
Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options
Uninterrupted blocks of work time, ideally three hours long
A constructivist or "discovery" model, in which students learn concepts from working with materials rather than by direct instruction
Specialized educational materials often made out of natural, aesthetic materials such as wood, rather than plastic
A thoughtfully prepared environment where materials are organized by subject area, are accessible to children, and are appropriately sized
Freedom, within limits
A trained teacher experienced in observing a child's characteristics, tendencies, innate talents, and abilitiesMontessori education involves free activity within a "prepared environment", meaning an educational environment tailored to basic human characteristics, to the specific characteristics of children at different ages, and to the individual personalities of each child. The function of the environment is to help and allow the child to develop independence in all areas according to his or her inner psychological directives. In addition to offering access to the Montessori materials appropriate to the age of the children, the environment should exhibit the following characteristics:
Infant and toddler programs
Montessori classrooms for children under three fall into several categories, with a number of terms being used. A nido, Italian for "nest", serves a small number of children from around two months to around fourteen months, or when the child is confidently walking. A "Young Child Community" serves a larger number of children from around one year to 2 1⁄2 or 3 years old. Both environments emphasize materials and activities scaled to the children's size and abilities, opportunities to develop movement, and activities to develop independence. Development of independence in toileting is typically emphasized as well. Some schools also offer "Parent-Infant" classes, in which parents participate with their very young children.
Preschool and kindergarten
Montessori classrooms for children from 2 1⁄2 or 3 to 6 years old are often called Children's Houses, after Montessori's first school, the Casa dei Bambini in Rome in 1906. This level is also called "Primary". A typical classroom serves 20 to 30 children in mixed-age groups, staffed by a fully trained lead teacher and assistants. Classrooms are usually out.... Discover the Etc Montessori popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Etc Montessori books.