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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown adipose tissue is found in almost all mammals. Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. The first shares a common embryological origin with muscle cells, found in larger "classic" deposits. The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite' (for "brown in white").Brown adipose tissue is especially abundant in newborns and in hibernating mammals. It is also present and metabolically active in adult humans, but its prevalence decreases as humans age. Its primary function is thermoregulation. In addition to heat produced by shivering muscle, brown adipose tissue produces heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. While brown adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining core body temperature and energy balance, brown fat adaptive thermogenesis can be detrimental to the hypermetabolic response to heat. On the other hand, the therapeutic targeting of brown fat for the treatment of human obesity is an active research field.In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives the tissue its color. Brown fat also contains more capillaries than white fat. These supply the tissue with oxygen and nutrients and distribute the produced heat throughout the body. Location and classification The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered in 2003 during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. Using these scans and data from human autopsies, several brown adipose tissue deposits have been identified. In infants, brown adipose tissue deposits include, but are not limited to: interscapular, supraclavicular, suprarenal, pericardial, para-aortic and around the pancreas, kidney and trachea. These deposits gradually get more white fat-like during adulthood. In adults, the deposits that are most often detected in FDG-PET scans are the supraclavicular, paravertebral, mediastinal, para-aortic and suprarenal ones. It remains to be determined whether these deposits are 'classical' brown adipose tissue or beige/brite fat.Brown fat in humans in the scientific and popular literature refers to two cell populations defined by both anatomical location and cellular morphology. Both share the presence of small lipid droplets and numerous iron-rich mitochondria, giving the brown appearance. "Classical" brown fat is found in highly vascularized deposits in somewhat consistent anatomical locations, such as between the shoulder blades, surrounding the kidneys, the neck, and supraclavicular area, and along the spinal cord. This is the smaller of the two types and has numerous small lipid droplets. Beige fat is the adrenergically inducible cell type that is dispersed throughout adipose tissue. It has greater variability in lipid droplet size and a greater proportion of lipid droplets to mitochondria than white fat, giving it a light brown appearance.Development Brown fat cells come from the middle embryo layer, mesoderm, also the source of myocytes (muscle cells), adipocytes, and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). The classic population of brown fat cells and muscle cells both seem to be derived from the same population of stem cells in the mesoderm, paraxial mesoderm. Both have the intrinsic capacity to activate the myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) promoter, a trait only associated with myocytes and this population of brown fat. Progenitors of traditional white fat cells and adrenergically induced brown fat do not have the capacity to activate the Myf5 promoter. Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. Additionally, muscle cells that were cultured with the transcription factor PRDM16 were converted into brown fat cells, and brown fat cells without PRDM16 were converted into muscle cells. Function The mitochondria in a eukaryotic cell utilize fuels to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This process involves storing energy as a proton gradient, also known as the proton motive force (PMF), across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This energy is used to synthesize ATP when the protons flow across the membrane (down their concentration gradient) through the ATP synthase complex; this is known as chemiosmosis. In endotherms, body heat is maintained by signaling the mitochondria to allow protons to run back along the gradient without producing ATP (proton leak). This can occur since an alternative return route for the protons exists through an uncoupling protein in the inner membrane. This protein, known as uncoupling protein 1 (thermogenin), facilitates the return of the protons after they have been actively pumped out of the mitochondria by the electron transport chain. This alternative route for protons uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and the energy in the PMF is instead released as heat. To some degree, all cells of endotherms give off heat, especially when body temperature is below a regulatory threshold. However, brown adipose tissue is highly specialized for this non-shivering thermogenesis. First, each cell has a higher number of mitochondria compared to more typical cells. Second, these mitochondria have a higher-than-normal concentration of thermogenin in the inner membrane. Infants In neonates (newborn infants), brown fat makes up about 5% of the body mass and is located on the back, along the upper half of the spine and toward the shoulders. It is of great importance to avoid hypothermia, as lethal cold is a major death risk for premature neonates. Numerous factors make infants more susceptible to cold than adults: A higher ratio of body surface area (proportional to heat loss) to body volume (proportional to heat production) A higher proportional surface area of the head A low amount of musculature and the inability to shiver A lack of thermal insulation, e.g., subcutaneous fat and fine body hair (especially in prematurely born children) An inability to move away from cold areas, air currents or heat-draining materials An inability to use additional ways of keeping warm (e.g., drying their skin, putting on clothing, moving into warmer areas, or performing physical exercise) A nervous system that is not fully developed and does not respond quickly and/or properly to cold (e.g., by contracting blood vessels in and just below the skin: vasoconstriction).Heat production in brown fat provides an infant with an alternative means of heat regulation. Adults It was believed that after infants grow up, most of the mit.... 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Best Seller J Bengtsson Books of December 2021

The Dark Hours e-book Download

The Dark Hours

Michael ConnellyNovember 9, 2021$14.99

“A masterpiece”—LAPD detective Renée Ballard must join forces with Harry Bosch to find justice in a city scarred by fear and social unrest after a methodical killer strikes on Ne...

Fear No Evil e-book Download

Fear No Evil

James PattersonNovember 22, 2021$14.99

Alex Cross enters the final battle with the all-knowing genius who has stalked him and his family for years. Dr. Alex Cross and Detective John Sampson venture into the rugged Montana wildern...

Broken French e-book Download

Broken French

Tasha BoydApril 26, 2021$0.99

Take a decadent and sizzling armchair vacation to the South of France this summer …  Natasha Boyd is back! Writing decadent romance as TASHA BOYD Josie thought she was getting a promo...

Pandemia e-book Download

Pandemia

Alex BerensonNovember 30, 2021$14.99

The most important fact about the coronavirus pandemic that turned the world upside down in 2020 is that our response to it has been an epic overreaction driven by a disastrous confluence of...

The Four Winds e-book Download

The Four Winds

Kristin HannahFebruary 2, 2021$14.99

From the number-one bestselling author of The Nightingale and The Great Alone comes a powerful American epic about love and heroism and hope, set during the Great Depression, a time when the...

The Last Thing He Told Me e-book Download

The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$13.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TODAY * ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY * CNN * TOWN & ...

God Bless This Mess e-book Download

God Bless This Mess

Hannah BrownNovember 23, 2021$14.99

“My life was a complete mess, and God bless all of it. Because it’s in the messes where we learn the most—as long as we slow down enough to realize what God is trying to show us....

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

The Real Anthony Fauci e-book Download

The Real Anthony Fauci

Robert F. KennedyNovember 16, 2021$2.99

#1 on AMAZON, and a NEW YORK TIMES, WALL STREET JOURNAL, and USA TODAY NATIONAL BESTSELLER Pharma-funded mainstream media has convinced millions of Americans that Dr. Anthony Fauci is a hero...

The Brothers Karamazov e-book Download

The Brothers Karamazov

Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Richard Pevear & Larissa VolokhonskyJune 14, 2002$2.99

Winner of the Pen/Book-of-the-Month Club Translation Prize The Brothers Karamasov is a murder mystery, a courtroom drama, and an exploration of erotic rivalry in a series of triangular love ...

In a Holidaze e-book Download

In a Holidaze

Christina LaurenOctober 6, 2020$1.99

THE INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER One Christmas wish, two brothers, and a lifetime of hope are on the line for hapless Maelyn Jones in In a Holidaze , the quintessential holiday romantic...

False Witness e-book Download

False Witness

Karin SlaughterJuly 20, 2021$12.99

INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER "There's deception, sabotage, violence, family secrets . . . all the stuff you could want from a fictional page-turner."— theSkimm  Recommended ...

Flying Angels e-book Download

Flying Angels

Danielle SteelNovember 23, 2021$14.99

World War II brings together six remarkable young flight nurses, who face the challenges of war and its many heartbreaks and victories as unsung heroes, in this inspiring novel from #1 New Y...

The Unaffected Earl e-book Download

The Unaffected Earl

Suzanna MedeirosSeptember 11, 2018$0.99

Can she thaw the ice that encases his heart? They call him the Unaffected Earl… Many seek his favor, men and women alike, but few glimpse what lies beneath the Earl of Brantford’s aloof ...

Cake and Punishment e-book Download

Cake and Punishment

Maymee BellMay 8, 2018$0.99

In the first of a delectable new Southern-set baking cozy series, a pastry chef must craft the perfect cake for an old friend’s wedding while sifting through the suspects in a murder Bucol...

King of Battle and Blood e-book Download

King of Battle and Blood

Scarlett St. ClairNovember 30, 2021$6.99

From fan-favorite Scarlett St. Clair, the bestselling author of the Hades & Persephone series, comes a new epic fantasy filled with danger, darkness, and insatiable romance.  Their ...

Leviathan Falls e-book Download

Leviathan Falls

James S. A. CoreyNovember 30, 2021$14.99

The biggest science fiction series of the decade comes to an incredible conclusion in the ninth and final novel in James S.A. Corey’s Hugo-award winning space opera that inspired the Prime...

Someone Perfect e-book Download

Someone Perfect

Mary BaloghNovember 30, 2021$8.99

Sometimes, just one person can pull a whole family apart. And sometimes, it just takes one person to pull it back together.  For fans of Bridgerton, New York Times  bestselling Reg...

Brothers and Wives e-book Download

Brothers and Wives

Christopher AndersenNovember 30, 2021$14.99

Featuring unreported details and stunning revelations, the long-awaited follow-up to the “fabulous, addictive” ( Chicago Sun-Times ) New York Times bestseller Diana’s Boys explores the...

Verity e-book Download

Verity

Colleen HooverOctober 5, 2021$7.99

A "sublimely creepy" psychological thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Colleen Hoover (Tarryn Fisher, New York Times bestselling author). Lowen Ashleigh is a struggling writer...

The Wish e-book Download

The Wish

Nicholas SparksSeptember 28, 2021$7.99

With exclusive travel photos and a special letter from the Author, only available for e-readers. From the author of The Longest Ride and The Return comes a novel about the enduring legacy of...

The Becoming e-book Download

The Becoming

Nora RobertsNovember 23, 2021$14.99

A new epic of love and war among gods and humans, from the #1 New York Times bestselling author of The Awakening. The world of magick and the world of man have long been estranged from one a...

Just Home for the Holidays e-book Download

Just Home for the Holidays

Deborah CookeDecember 10, 2020$0.99

Chloe has plans… Running the finances at Flatiron Five Fitness West is steadily making her goal of financial independence come true. Returning to New York for Christmas should be routine, ...

The Lincoln Highway e-book Download

The Lincoln Highway

Amor TowlesOctober 5, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A TODAY Show Read with Jenna Book Club Pick A New York Times Notable Book, and Chosen by Oprah Quarterly and The Washington Post as a Best Book of the Year “Wi...

Air Fry Every Day e-book Download

Air Fry Every Day

Ben MimsAugust 28, 2018$1.99

The go-to air fryer cookbook with 75 recipes for your favorite indulgences—faster, healthier, and crispier!   “You won’t believe all the fun and inventive things the air fryer can...

The Midnight Lock e-book Download

The Midnight Lock

Jeffery DeaverNovember 30, 2021$14.99

The "master of ticking-bomb suspense" ( People ) Jeffery Deaver delivers the latest thriller featuring his beloved protagonists Lincoln Rhyme and Amelia Sachs as they search for a criminal w...

Never e-book Download

Never

Ken FollettNovember 9, 2021$15.99

New York Times Bestseller The new must-read epic from master storyteller Ken Follett: more than a thriller, it’s an action-packed, globe-spanning drama set in the present day.   “A ...

St. Peter’s Mystery e-book Download

St. Peter’s Mystery

Jeroen WindmeijerSeptember 16, 2021$0.99

The brand new unmissable adventure novel for fans of Scott Mariani, Dan Brown and Daniel Silva ‘The ingenious construction of the ivory box would ensure that neither wind nor water, earth ...

Go Tell the Bees That I Am Gone e-book Download

Go Tell the Bees That I Am Gone

Diana GabaldonNovember 23, 2021$15.99

#1 New York Times bestselling author Diana Gabaldon returns with the newest novel in the epic Outlander series.   The past may seem the safest place to be . . . but it is the most dange...

All About Me! e-book Download

All About Me!

Mel BrooksNovember 30, 2021$14.99

At 95, the legendary Mel Brooks continues to set the standard for comedy across television, film, and the stage. Now he shares his story for the first time in “a wonderful additi...

The Judge's List e-book Download

The Judge's List

John GrishamOctober 19, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BEST SELLER • Investigator Lacy Stoltz follows the trail of a serial killer, and closes in on a shocking suspect—a sitting judge—in “one of the best crime reads of ...

Trick or Treat e-book Download

Trick or Treat

Katerina DiamondOctober 14, 2021$0.99

‘Stunningly brilliant… Full of more twists and turns than the best ever rollercoaster, with an epic ending’ NetGalley review ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ TRICK OR TREAT? When six-year-old Marc...

Dream Keeper e-book Download

Dream Keeper

Kristen AshleyNovember 30, 2021$6.99

Spinning off from the bestselling Dream Man and Rock Chick series, this is the emotional and steamy contemporary romance fans of the Dream Team series have been waiting for! He’s perfect...

Love is Blind e-book Download

Love is Blind

Lynsay SandsJune 8, 2010$1.99

“Lynsay Sands spins a funny, laughable tale.” —Eloisa James on Taming the Highland Bride Adrian Montfort, Earl of Mowbray, had been warned that Lady Clarissa Crambray was dangerous. Fr...

Mercy e-book Download

Mercy

David BaldacciNovember 16, 2021$14.99

The #1 New York Times bestselling author with 150 million copies sold worldwide returns with his next blockbuster thriller featuring FBI Agent Atlee Pine.

Wish You Were Here e-book Download

Wish You Were Here

Jodi PicoultNovember 30, 2021$14.99

From the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Small Great Things and The Book of Two Ways comes “a powerfully evocative story of resilience and the triumph of the human spirit” (...

A Season of Angels e-book Download

A Season of Angels

Debbie MacomberJune 28, 2011$1.99

From the #1 New York Times and USA Today bestselling author Debbie Macomber comes a beautiful repackage of the classic novel that started it all. Wishes for love bring hope from above. Shirl...

Better Off Dead e-book Download

Better Off Dead

Lee Child & Andrew ChildOctober 26, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Jack Reacher is back in a brand-new page-turning thriller from acclaimed #1 bestselling authors Lee Child and Andrew Child. Digging graves had not been part ...

The Stranger in the Lifeboat e-book Download

The Stranger in the Lifeboat

Mitch AlbomNovember 2, 2021$11.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller What would happen if we called on God for help and God actually appeared? In Mitch Albom’s profound new novel of hope and faith, a group of shipwrecked passeng...

The Eye of the World e-book Download

The Eye of the World

Robert JordanSeptember 15, 2000$10.99

Now an original series starring Rosamund Pike as Moiraine! The first novel in Robert Jordan's #1 New York Times bestselling epic fantasy series, The Wheel of Time®. The Wheel of Time turns ...

Laptop from Hell e-book Download

Laptop from Hell

Miranda DevineNovember 30, 2021$14.99

As seen on  Tucker Carlson Tonight !   The inside story of the laptop that exposed the president’s dirtiest secret. When a drug-addled Hunter Biden abandoned his waterlogged comp...

Sold on a Monday e-book Download

Sold on a Monday

Kristina McMorrisAugust 28, 2018$15.99

A NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A USA TODAY BESTSELLER A WALL STREET JOURNAL BESTSELLER A NATIONAL INDIEBOUND BESTSELLER An unforgettable bestselling historical fiction novel by Kristina McMorri...

The Lost Sister e-book Download

The Lost Sister

Kathleen McGurlMay 12, 2021$0.99

‘I was captivated… What a stunning story of sisterhood, sacrifice and forgiveness!’ Lana Kortchik, USA Today bestselling author of Sisters of War Three sisters. Three ships. One heartb...

Vortex e-book Download

Vortex

Catherine CoulterAugust 10, 2021$14.99

#1 New York Times bestselling Catherine Coulter returns with a brilliant new novel in her FBI thriller series, in which agents Sherlock and Savich find themselves dealing with very...

Atlas of the Heart e-book Download

Atlas of the Heart

Brené BrownNovember 30, 2021$14.99

In her latest book, five-time #1 New York Times bestselling author Dr. Brené Brown writes, “If we want to find the way back to ourselves and one another, we need language and the grounded...

The Love Hypothesis e-book Download

The Love Hypothesis

Ali HazelwoodSeptember 14, 2021$9.99

The Instant New York Times Bestseller! As seen on THE VIEW! A BuzzFeed Best Summer Read of 2021 When a fake relationship between scientists meets the irresistible force of attraction, it thr...

Autopsy e-book Download

Autopsy

Patricia CornwellNovember 30, 2021$14.99

In this relaunch of the electrifying, landmark #1 bestselling thriller series, chief medical examiner Dr. Kay Scarpetta hunts those responsible for two wildly divergent and chilling murders....

The Anomaly e-book Download

The Anomaly

Hervé Le Tellier & Adriana HunterNovember 23, 2021$10.99

NAMED A BEST MYSTERY/THRILLER OF THE YEAR BY PUBLISHERS WEEKLY , A BEST MYSTERY/THRILLER OF THE MONTH BY POPSUGAR , AND A MOST ANTICIPATED READ OF THE YEAR BY CRIMEREADS   Winner of the...

Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order e-book Download

Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order

Ray DalioNovember 30, 2021$16.99

“A provocative read...There are few tomes that coherently map such broad economic histories as well as Mr. Dalio’s. Perhaps more unusually, Mr. Dalio has managed to identify metrics from...

The Complete Wheel of Time Series Set (1-14) e-book Download

The Complete Wheel of Time Series Set (1-14)

Robert JordanOctober 28, 2020$39.99

Soon to be an original series starring Rosamund Pike as Moiraine! The Wheel of Time®, Robert Jordan's internationally bestselling fantasy series, has captured the imaginations of millions o...

Best Seller J Bengtsson Audio Books of December 2021

Will (Unabridged) audiobook
Will (Unabridged)Will Smith$19.99

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Pandemia: How Coronavirus Hysteria Took Over Our Government, Rights, and Lives (Unabridged) audiobook
Pandemia: How Coronavirus Hysteria Took Over Our Government, Rights, and Lives (Unabridged)Alex Berenson$21.99

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Laptop from Hell: Hunter Biden, Big Tech, and the Dirty Secrets the President Tried to Hide (Unabridged) audiobook
Laptop from Hell: Hunter Biden, Big Tech, and the Dirty Secrets the President Tried to Hide (Unabridged)Miranda Devine$17.99

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Greenlights (Unabridged) audiobook
Greenlights (Unabridged)Matthew McConaughey$14.99

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God Bless This Mess audiobook
God Bless This MessHannah Brown$16.99

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Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged) audiobook
Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged)James Clear$14.99

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Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged) audiobook
Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged)David Goggins$21.99

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Leviathan Falls audiobook
Leviathan FallsJames S.A. Corey$19.99

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Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged) audiobook
Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged)Robert T. Kiyosaki$12.99

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Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order (Unabridged) audiobook
Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order (Unabridged)Ray Dalio$16.99

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