Who is Jeremy Bailenson?

Jeremy Bailenson Popular Books

Jeremy Bailenson Biography & Facts

The Proteus effect describes a phenomenon in which the behavior of an individual, within virtual worlds, is changed by the characteristics of their avatar. This change is due to the individual's knowledge about the behaviors that other users who are part of that virtual environment typically associate with those characteristics. Like the adjective protean (meaning versatile or mutable), the concept's name is an allusion to the shape changing abilities of the Greek god Proteus. The Proteus effect was first introduced by researchers Nick Yee and Jeremy Bailenson at Stanford University in June 2007. It is considered an area of research concerned with the examination of the behavioral effects of changing a user's embodied avatar. Overview The Proteus effect proposes that the visual characteristics and traits of an avatar are associated with specific behavioral stereotypes and expectations. When an individual believes that others will expect certain behaviors from them because of their avatars' appearance, they will engage in those expected behaviors. Support for the Proteus effect comes from past research in real world scenarios that has shown how certain physical characteristics, like attractiveness and height, are often associated with more positive social and professional outcomes. Moreover, experimental manipulations of these characteristics in virtual environments have shown that individuals engage in stereotype-confirming behaviors.This is part of a larger field of research that looks at the behavior of individuals who engage in computer-mediated communication (CMC). Although CMC comes in many forms (text, audio, video, etc.), the Proteus effect is particularly relevant to CMC in which individuals interact by using avatars. This effect is driven by the increased ability to control one's appearance in an online virtual environment. Virtual world environments allow users to control many aspects of their appearance that they cannot easily change in the real world (e.g., height, weight, facial features). Theoretical background Three psychological concepts that led to the development of the Proteus effect are behavioral confirmation, self-perception theory, and deindividuation. Behavioral confirmation Behavioral confirmation refers to the effects that a perceiver's actions can have on the resulting behavior of an individual. Specifically, this concept proposes that interacting with individuals who hold preexisting stereotypes will lead the target of those stereotypes to engage in behaviors that will confirm the perceiver's expectations. The Proteus effect differs from behavioral confirmation in that it does not consider the actions of a perceiver. Instead, its goal is to explain how the individual's own stereotypes and expectations drives the change in behavior, independent of any social interactions that take place. Self-perception theory Self-perception theory states that individuals determine their attitudes and emotions by making observations about both their own behavior and the circumstances that led to those behaviors. It was first introduced as an alternative to cognitive dissonance, which argued that changes in behavior can result from an individual's attempt to eliminate tension from contradicting behaviors and beliefs. A series of studies on self-perception theory that looked at changes in behavior as a result of wearing black, a color associated with negative concepts like death and evil, were influential in the development of the Proteus effect. In these studies by Mark G. Frank and Thomas Gilovich, participants who watched video recordings of sports rated NFL and NHL players wore black uniforms as being more aggressive. Furthermore, participants who were instructed to wear black jerseys reported greater preferences for engaging in aggressive behaviors against competitors. The argument across these studies was that how participants perceived themselves (i.e., wearing a color that has negative associations) led them to adopt negative behaviors. The Proteus effect carries this idea into virtual environments, where individuals see themselves as their avatar which in turn shapes their behavior. Deindividuation Deindividuation refers to a decrease in self-awareness and self-evaluation as a result of being part of a group. Individuals who experience deindividuation seem to be influenced to a greater degree by identity cues. In a 1979 study by Robert D. Johnson and Leslie L. Downing, participants were instructed to give an electric shock to research assistants while wearing either a KKK disguise or a nurse's uniform. The results showed that the costumes worn by participants affected the shock level that they administered to the research assistants. Johnson and Downing stated that these findings supported the argument that deindividuation increases the influence that identity cues have on individuals. In virtual environments, deindividuation is believed to be driven by the level of anonymity that this type of setting provides for its users. Evidence A meta-analysis examining 46 quantitative experimental studies of the Proteus effect found a small-but-approaching-medium effect size that was relatively consistent (between .22 and .26), with nearly all variance explained, suggesting that the Proteus effect is reliable and sizable relative to other digital media effects.Findings from a study that compared the appearance and behaviors of avatars in Second Life to the real world behavior and appearance of their users support the Proteus effect. In this study, participants who reported that they had designed their avatars to be more attractive also reported engaging in more confident and extraverted behavior when compared to their real world behavior. A study also found that the effects happen in the short term.The Proteus effect has also been linked to attitude changes that reflect the stereotypes associated with their avatar's appearance. In a study by Jesse Fox, Jeremy N. Bailenson, and Liz Tricase, women were assigned avatars whose appearances were either highly sexualized or non-sexualized. While wearing a head-mounted display, participants were asked to face a virtual mirror that allowed them to see the reflection of their avatar. This was followed by a virtual conversation with a male avatar who was being controlled by the researchers. Women who used a sexualized avatar reported having more thoughts about their body image. The researchers concluded that this finding supports the Proteus effect by demonstrating that individuals internalized the sexualized aspects of their avatar's appearance, which led to greater self-objectification. Support for this conclusion comes from a similar study in which more body-related thoughts were reported by women who were asked to wear swimsuit when compared to women who were only asked to try on a shirt while facing a mirror. There are also studies that suggest how the use of avatars decrease stereotypes about elderly groups.Fu.... Discover the Jeremy Bailenson popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Jeremy Bailenson books.

Best Seller Jeremy Bailenson Books of September 2021

The Lost Symbol e-book Download

The Lost Symbol

Dan BrownSeptember 15, 2009$9.99

#1 WORLDWIDE BESTSELLER • An intelligent, lightning-paced thriller s et within the hidden chambers, tunnels, and temples of Washington, D.C., with surprises at every turn. • Don’t miss...

The Love Hypothesis e-book Download

The Love Hypothesis

Ali HazelwoodSeptember 14, 2021$9.99

A BuzzFeed Best Summer Read of 2021 When a fake relationship between scientists meets the irresistible force of attraction, it throws one woman's carefully calculated theories on love into c...

Shielding Ember e-book Download

Shielding Ember

Susan StokerSeptember 14, 2021$4.99

For as long as she can remember, Ember Maxwell’s life hasn’t been her own. A world-renowned influencer, she’s a brand unto herself, created by her parents—who also want Olympic glory...

Christmas at Castle Dunrannoch e-book Download

Christmas at Castle Dunrannoch

Emmanuelle de MaupassantAugust 4, 2021$0.99

"The curse is upon us! Beware the bagpipes! Each clansman shall meet his death!" Whenever the fearsome fetch of Camdyn Dalreagh, first chieftain, plays a ghostly rendition on the bagpipes, a...

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

White Nights e-book Download

White Nights

Anna Zaires & Charmaine PaulsSeptember 14, 2021$5.99

"A one-sitting, unputdownable read that will have your pulse racing from start to finish." ~  L.J. Shen,  Wall Street Journal  Bestselling Author Power. Th...

Courage Under Fire e-book Download

Courage Under Fire

Lindsay McKennaFebruary 23, 2021$6.99

A gripping new novel of the West featuring the cowboys of Silver Creek by acclaimed New York Times bestselling author Lindsay McKenna, perfect for fans of the exciting novels of B.J. Daniels...

The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo e-book Download

The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo

Taylor Jenkins ReidJune 13, 2017$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “If you ’ re looking for a book to take on holiday this summer, The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo has got all the glitz and glamour to make it a perfect beach r...

Ugly Love e-book Download

Ugly Love

Colleen HooverAugust 5, 2014$10.99

From Colleen Hoover, the #1 New York Times bestselling author of It Ends With Us, a heart-wrenching love story that proves attraction at first sight can be messy. When Tate Collins meets air...

Flight e-book Download

Flight

Laura GriffinMarch 30, 2021$1.99

One tenacious local detective can only get the help he needs from a former forensic photographer with a serial killer on the loose in the new romantic thriller from  New York Times ...

Running on Diesel e-book Download

Running on Diesel

Melissa FosterSeptember 15, 2021$5.99

A fun, sexy, and emotionally riveting standalone contemporary romance by New York Times bestselling author Melissa Foster. RUNNING ON DIESEL is the perfect love story for those who enjoy fie...

Eaters of the Dead e-book Download

Eaters of the Dead

Michael CrichtonMarch 12, 1976$1.99

From the bestselling author of  Jurassic Park ,  Timeline , and  Sphere  comes an epic tale of unspeakable horror.   It is 922 A.D. The refined Arab courtier Ibn Fad...

The Night She Disappeared e-book Download

The Night She Disappeared

Lisa JewellSeptember 7, 2021$12.99

“Utterly gripping with richly drawn, hugely compelling characters, this is a first-class thriller with heart.” —Lucy Foley, New York Times bestselling author “Insane suspense.” —...

Harlem Shuffle e-book Download

Harlem Shuffle

Colson WhiteheadSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

From the two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Underground Railroad and The Nickel Boys , a gloriously entertaining novel of heists, shakedowns, and rip-offs set in Harlem in the 196...

Beautiful World, Where Are You e-book Download

Beautiful World, Where Are You

Sally RooneySeptember 7, 2021$14.99

AN INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTELLER Beautiful World, Where Are You is a new novel by Sally Rooney, the bestselling author of Normal People and Conversations with Friends . Alice, a noveli...

For The Love of You e-book Download

For The Love of You

Claire MartiMarch 18, 2020$0.99

For a French soccer icon, and a gifted artist, a fake engagement is the perfect solution for their current dilemmas. But when last summer's fling slips from lust to love, their pretend relat...

A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century e-book Download

A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century

Heather Heying & Bret WeinsteinSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

A bold, provocative history of our species finds the roots of civilization’s success and failure in our evolutionary biology. We are living through the most prosperous age in all of human ...

The Paper Palace e-book Download

The Paper Palace

Miranda Cowley HellerJuly 6, 2021$13.99

REESE'S BOOK CLUB PICK INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER THE PAPER PALACE IS: “Filled with secrets, love, lies and a summer beach house. What more could you ask?”— Parade “A deepl...

Hostage e-book Download

Hostage

Clare MackintoshJune 22, 2021$1.99

"Feels like a blockbuster movie."—Lisa Jewell, #1 New York Times bestselling author of Then She Was Gone "Mackintosh is a pro...the final scene in the book almost made me sick as I read it...

Sailing True North e-book Download

Sailing True North

Admiral James Stavridis, USNOctober 15, 2019$1.99

From one of the most distinguished admirals of our time and a former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO, a meditation on leadership and character refracted through the lives of ten of the most...

Nightmare in Pink e-book Download

Nightmare in Pink

John D. MacDonald & Lee ChildOctober 12, 1978$1.99

From a beloved master of crime fiction, Nightmare in Pink is one of many classic novels featuring Travis McGee, the hard-boiled detective who lives on a houseboat.   Travis McGee’s pe...

Billy Summers e-book Download

Billy Summers

Stephen KingAugust 3, 2021$14.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller From legendary storyteller Stephen King, whose “restless imagination is a power that cannot be contained” ( The New York Times Book Review ), comes a thrilli...

The Madness of Crowds e-book Download

The Madness of Crowds

Louise PennyAugust 24, 2021$14.99

Instant #1 New York Times Bestseller AARP The Magazine – Recommended Summer Reading CNN – A Most Anticipated Book of August Bustle – A Most Anticipated Book of August Chief Inspector A...

Enemy at the Gates e-book Download

Enemy at the Gates

Vince Flynn & Kyle MillsSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

Picking up where the “tour de force” ( The Providence Journal ) Total Power left off, the next thriller in the #1 New York Times bestselling Mitch Rapp series follows the CIA’s top ope...

Legacy of Silence e-book Download

Legacy of Silence

Belva PlainApril 13, 1998$1.99

In Legacy of Silence, New York Times bestselling author Belva Plain creates an unforgettable story of a remarkable family—and a deception that reaches across continents, oceans, and genera...

A Mind Awake e-book Download

A Mind Awake

C. S. LewisFebruary 14, 2017$1.99

A repackaged edition of the revered author’s anthology featuring hundreds of selections from his writings, organized by the main themes of Christian faith. C. S. Lewis—the great British ...

Apples Never Fall e-book Download

Apples Never Fall

Liane MoriartySeptember 14, 2021$14.99

From Liane Moriarty, the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Big Little Lies and Nine Perfect Strangers , comes Apples Never Fall , a novel that looks at marriage, siblings, and how the ...

Peril e-book Download

Peril

Bob Woodward & Robert CostaSeptember 21, 2021$14.99

The transition from President Donald J. Trump to President Joseph R. Biden Jr. stands as one of the most dangerous periods in American history. But as # 1 internationally bestselling author ...

The Last Thing He Told Me e-book Download

The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$13.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TODAY * ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY * CNN * TOWN & ...

A History of God e-book Download

A History of God

Karen ArmstrongSeptember 28, 1993$2.99

Why does God exist? How have the three dominant monotheistic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—shaped and altered the conception of God? How have these religions influenced each...

A Slow Fire Burning e-book Download

A Slow Fire Burning

Paula HawkinsAugust 31, 2021$14.99

AN INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The scorching new thriller from the #1 New York Times bestselling author of The Girl on the Train.   “ A Slow Fire Burning twists and turns lik...

A Hope for Emily e-book Download

A Hope for Emily

Kate HewittFebruary 20, 2020$3.99

“ So heart-wrenching … This story just grips you right from the start. I had a really hard time putting it down and found myself reading well into the night… Perfect for fans of such w...

Keep Your Brain Alive e-book Download

Keep Your Brain Alive

Lawrence C. Katz Ph.D. & Manning RubinMarch 25, 2014$1.99

A neurobiologist provides simple ways to exercise your brain, enhance your memory, and boost your cognitive health.   Over forty? Getting forgetful? Having trouble learning new things, ...

The Rebound e-book Download

The Rebound

Kendall RyanSeptember 14, 2021$4.99

A smokin' hot new standalone romance from New York Times bestseller, Kendall Ryan. My coach hates me, and our team captain now watches my every move, so that's super fun. Which is why I'm tr...

The Lost Continent e-book Download

The Lost Continent

Bill BrysonJune 2, 2015$1.99

“The kind of book Steinbeck might have written if he’d traveled with David Letterman.” —New York magazine An inspiring and hilarious account of one man’s rediscovery of America and...

Among the Lesser Gods e-book Download

Among the Lesser Gods

Margo CattsMay 9, 2017$1.99

For fans of authors like Barbara Kingsolver and Leif Enger, a stunning new voice in contemporary literary fiction. "Tragedy and blessing. Leave them alone long enough, and it gets real hard ...

Forgotten in Death e-book Download

Forgotten in Death

J. D. RobbSeptember 7, 2021$14.99

In the latest novel in the #1 New York Times bestselling series, homicide detective Eve Dallas sifts through the wreckage of the past to find a killer. The body was left in a dumpster like s...

The Judge's List e-book Download

The Judge's List

John GrishamOctober 19, 2021$14.99

Nonstop suspense from the #1 New York Times bestselling author: Investigator Lacy Stoltz follows the trail of a serial killer, and closes in on a shocking suspect—a sitting judge.  &#...

Black Annis: Revenge of the Witch Box Set e-book Download

Black Annis: Revenge of the Witch Box Set

Aubrey LawAugust 28, 2021$0.99

BLACK MAGIC IS THE BEST REVENGE New 2021 edition!  Contains the first five Black Annis books: Demon Hunter Demon Slayer Demon Destroyer Demon Punisher Blood Moon All that the ancient bl...

Breakdown e-book Download

Breakdown

Sara ParetskyJanuary 3, 2012$2.99

A strange crime gets V.I. Warshawski involved with some of Chicago’s most rich and powerful players in this thriller from New York Times bestselling author Sara Paretsky. When a group of C...

Miss Graham's Cold War Cookbook e-book Download

Miss Graham's Cold War Cookbook

Celia ReesJuly 7, 2020$1.99

"A perfect summer read; gripping, original, well-drawn and compassionate"--Joanne Harris   "Celia Rees is a superb writer, and this novel has one of the most irresistible and unique sto...

A Perfect Plan e-book Download

A Perfect Plan

Alyssa DrakeApril 2, 2019$0.99

An opinionated tomboy must navigate the dangers of society, unaware her brother's killer is lurking in her midst. When her brother's ship sinks off the coast of France, Miss Samantha Hasting...

The Child in the Photo e-book Download

The Child in the Photo

Kerry WilkinsonJune 14, 2021$0.99

I stare at the newspaper article about a baby snatched from the back of a car thirty years ago, and wonder why someone would post it through my door. Looking closer, my blood freezes. The li...

The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck e-book Download

The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck

Mark MansonSeptember 13, 2016$12.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller Over 1 million copies sold In this generation-defining self-help guide, a superstar blogger cuts through the crap to show us how to stop trying to be "positive" ...

You Got Anything Stronger? e-book Download

You Got Anything Stronger?

Gabrielle UnionSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

“Funny, tender, and so good.” —Mindy Kaling, #1 New York Times bestselling author of Why Not Me? Remember when we hit it off so well that we decided We’re Going to Nee...

Breathless Secrets e-book Download

Breathless Secrets

Elizabeth LennoxSeptember 17, 2021$3.99

Was she risking her heart for a liar? Molly McCabe helped people.  As director of the neighborhood community center, she loved making the world a better place.  So when James Morga...

The Trapped Wife e-book Download

The Trapped Wife

Samantha HayesSeptember 8, 2021$0.99

‘ Jaw-dropping … I did literally gasp and say, “NO WAY!” out loud… And at the end, I just sat there thinking, “What the hell did I just read?” … freaking awesome … The twis...

The Sunny Side Up Cozy Mysteries Box Set e-book Download

The Sunny Side Up Cozy Mysteries Box Set

Rosie A. PointJuly 22, 2021$0.99

Five cozy mysteries for you to enjoy... When Sunny arrives in Parfait, Florida, she's set on sun, sand, and rejuvenation after a messy divorce. She's done dealing with her flaky ex, and the ...

A Thousand Days in Venice e-book Download

A Thousand Days in Venice

Marlena de BlasiJune 11, 2013$1.99

An American chef meets the love of her life among the beautiful canals and exquisite cuisine of Venice—“better than a romance novel, it’s the real thing” ( New Orleans Times-Picayune...

Based on a True Story e-book Download

Based on a True Story

Norm MacdonaldSeptember 20, 2016$9.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • “Driving, wild and hilarious” ( The Washington Post ), here is the incredible “memoir” of the legendary actor, gambler, raconteur, and Saturday Night Li...

Best Seller Jeremy Bailenson Audio Books of September 2021

A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century: Evolution and the Challenges of Modern Life (Unabridged) audiobook
A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century: Evolution and the Challenges of Modern Life (Unabridged)Heather Heying & Bret Weinstein$14.99

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Based on a True Story: A Memoir (Unabridged) audiobook
Based on a True Story: A Memoir (Unabridged)Norm Macdonald$14.99

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Greenlights (Unabridged) audiobook
Greenlights (Unabridged)Matthew McConaughey$14.99

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Enemy at the Gates (Unabridged) audiobook
Enemy at the Gates (Unabridged)Vince Flynn$14.99

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The Rules of Magic (Unabridged) audiobook
The Rules of Magic (Unabridged)Alice Hoffman$3.99

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The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck audiobook
The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ckMark Manson$14.99

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Apples Never Fall audiobook
Apples Never FallLiane Moriarty$19.99

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Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged) audiobook
Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged)David Goggins$21.99

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Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged) audiobook
Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged)James Clear$14.99

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Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged) audiobook
Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged)Robert T. Kiyosaki$12.99

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