Who is L A Cotton?

L A Cotton Popular Books

L A Cotton Biography & Facts

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, Egypt and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated to the fifth millennium BC have been found in the Indus Valley Civilization, as well as fabric remnants dated back to 6000 BC in Peru. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land. India is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic meters (17 cubic feet) and weigh 226.8 kilograms (500 pounds). Types There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and southern Florida (90% of world production) Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America (8% of world production) Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan (less than 2%) Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula (less than 2%)Hybrid varieties are also cultivated. The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were widely used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur naturally in colors of white, brown, pink and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties. Etymology The word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن (qutn or qutun). This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, and English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the later medieval era at transformatively lower prices. History Early history South Asia The earliest evidence of the use of cotton in the Old World, dated to 5500 BC and preserved in copper beads, has been found at the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh, at the foot of the Bolan Pass in Balochistan, Pakistan. Fragments of cotton textiles have been found at Mohenjo-daro and other sites of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization, and cotton may have been an important export from it. Americas Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC.In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, and was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico, Moche, and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. Arabia The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica". This may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, which is a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. Iran In Iran (Persia), the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era (5th century BC); however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. Cotton cultivation was common in Merv, Ray and Pars. In Persian poems, especially Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton ("panbe" in Persian). Marco Polo (13th century) refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. Kingdom of Kush Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum Linnaeus) may have been domesticated 5000 BC in eastern Sudan near the Middle Nile Basin region, where cotton cloth was being produced. Around the 4th century BC, the cultivation of cotton and the knowledge of its spinning and weaving in Meroë reached a high level. The export of textiles was one of the sources of wealth for Meroë. Aksumite King Ezana boasted in his inscription that he destroyed large cotton plantations in Meroë during his conquest of the region. China During the Han dynasty (207 BC - 220 AD), cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Middle Ages Eastern world Egyptians grew and spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era.Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, and was then introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in India and China. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power.The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from the Islamic world in the eleventh century. The earliest unambiguous reference to a spinning wheel in India is dated to 1350, suggesting that the spinning wheel was likely introduced from Iran to India during the Delhi Sultanate. Europe During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant. Because Herodotus had written in his Histories, Book III, 106, that .... Discover the L A Cotton popular books. Find the top 100 most popular L A Cotton books.

Best Seller L A Cotton Books of September 2021

Caravans book summary, reviews and downlod

Caravans

4.5/5$8.99

First published in 1963, James A. Michener’s gripping chronicle of the social and political landscape of Afghanistan is more relevant now than ever. Combining fact with riveting adventure ...

Space book summary, reviews and downlod

Space

4.5/5$9.99

“A master storyteller . . . Michener, by any standards, is a phenomenon. Space is one of his best books.”—The Wall Street JournalAlready a re...

Centennial book summary, reviews and downlod

Centennial

4.5/5$14.99

Written to commemorate the Bicentennial in 1976, James A. Michener’s magnificent saga of the West is an enthralling celebration of the frontier. Brimming with the glory of America...

Caribbean book summary, reviews and downlod

Caribbean

4.5/5$6.99

In this acclaimed classic novel, James A. Michener sweeps readers off to the Caribbean, bringing to life the eternal allure and tumultuous history of this glittering string of islands. From ...

Iberia book summary, reviews and downlod

Iberia

4.5/5$13.99

Spain is an immemorial land like no other, one that James A. Michener, the Pulitzer Prize–winning author and celebrated citizen of the world, came to love as his own. Iberia is Mich...

The Fires of Spring book summary, reviews and downlod

The Fires of Spring

4/5$12.99

An intimate early novel from James A. Michener, now remembered as the beloved master of the historical epic, The Fires of Spring unfolds with the bittersweet drama of a boy’s perilo...

The Lincoln Myth book summary, reviews and downlod

The Lincoln Myth

4/5$9.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • A Cotton Malone adventure involving a flaw in the United States Constitution, a mystery about Abraham Lincoln, and a political issue that’s as ...

The Venetian Betrayal book summary, reviews and downlod

The Venetian Betrayal

4/5$4.99

“[Steve Berry] has a genuine feel for the factual gaps that give history its tantalizing air of the unknown.”—The New York Times Book ReviewAfter narrowly esc...

The Drifters book summary, reviews and downlod

The Drifters

4/5$8.99

“Rings with authentic detail and clearly descriptive sights and smells . . . The Drifters is to the generation gap what The Source was to Israel.”—...

Miracle in Seville book summary, reviews and downlod

Miracle in Seville

4/5$12.99

James A. Michener, the Pulitzer Prize–winning master of the historical saga, returns to his beloved Spain with this magical novel of Seville at Easter time, a season of splendid pageantry,...

This Noble Land book summary, reviews and downlod

This Noble Land

0/5$4.99

In such modern classics as Chesapeake, Centennial, Hawaii, Alaska, and Texas, James A. Michener proved time and again that his understanding of and love for his country was unp...

Recessional book summary, reviews and downlod

Recessional

4/5$5.99

In this remarkable novel, Pulitzer Prize–winning author James A. Michener draws on his unparalleled gift for storytelling, his deep understanding of American society, and his own life expe...

The Kaiser's Web book summary, reviews and downlod

The Kaiser's Web

4.5/5$14.99

In New York Times bestseller Steve Berry’s latest Cotton Malone adventure, a secret dossier from a World War II-era Soviet spy comes to light containing information that, if prov...

The Alexandria Link book summary, reviews and downlod

The Alexandria Link

4.5/5$9.99

Cotton Malone retired from the high-risk world of elite operatives for the U.S. Justice Department to lead the low-key life of a rare-book dealer. But his quiet existence is shattered when...

Alaska book summary, reviews and downlod

Alaska

4.5/5$11.99

In this sweeping epic of the northernmost American frontier, James A. Michener guides us through Alaska’s fierce terrain and history, from the long-forgotten past to the bustling present. ...

The Amber Room book summary, reviews and downlod

The Amber Room

4/5$9.99

“A winner . . . combines the pace and style of Brown’s Da Vinci Code and the densely plotted espionage of Daniel Silva’s Gabriel Allon novels.”—The...

Sports in America book summary, reviews and downlod

Sports in America

0/5$9.99

Originally published in 1976, James A. Michener’s explosive, spectacular Sports in America is a prescient examination of the crisis in American sports that is still unfolding to thi...

The King's Deception (with bonus novella The Tudor Plot) book summary, reviews and downlod

The King's Deception (with bonus novella The Tudor Plot)

4/5$4.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • This Cotton Malone adventure blends gripping contemporary political intrigue, Tudor treachery, and high-octane thrills into one riveting novel of...

The Devils' Due book summary, reviews and downlod

The Devils' Due

4/5$1.99

Experience a heart-pumping and thrilling tale of suspense! Originally published in THRILLER (2006), edited by #1 New York Times bestselling author James Patterson.In this alterna...

The Tudor Plot: A Cotton Malone Novella book summary, reviews and downlod

The Tudor Plot: A Cotton Malone Novella

4/5$2.99

In this original eBook novella by the New York Times bestselling author of The King’s Deception, globetrotting intelligence agent Cotton Malone is lured into dangerous intrig...

The Malta Exchange book summary, reviews and downlod

The Malta Exchange

4/5$9.99

"The result is a thriller that intrigues and provides historical context. Berry is the master scientist with a perfect formula." — Associated PressOne of US...

Texas book summary, reviews and downlod

Texas

4.5/5$13.99

Spanning four and a half centuries, James A. Michener’s monumental saga chronicles the epic history of Texas, from its Spanish roots in the age of the conquistadors to its current reputati...

Journey book summary, reviews and downlod

Journey

4/5$12.99

One of the premier novelists of the twentieth century, James A. Michener captures a frenzied time when sane men and women risked their very lives in a forbidding Arctic land to win a dazzlin...

The Novel book summary, reviews and downlod

The Novel

4.5/5$11.99

In this riveting, ambitious novel from James A. Michener, the renowned chronicler of epic history turns his extraordinary imagination to a world he knew better than anyone: the world of book...

The 14th Colony book summary, reviews and downlod

The 14th Colony

4/5$9.99

What happens if both the president and vice-president-elect die before taking the oath of office? The answer is far from certain—in fact, what follows would be nothing short of total po...

Rascals in Paradise book summary, reviews and downlod

Rascals in Paradise

0/5$4.99

In a thrilling collection of nonfiction adventure stories, James A. Michener returns to the most dazzling place on Earth: the islands that inspired Tales of the South Pacific. Co-writ...

Poland book summary, reviews and downlod

Poland

4.5/5$9.99

“A Michener epic is far more than a bedtime reader, it’s an experience. Poland is a monumental effort, a magnificent guide to a better understanding of the country’...

The Romanov Prophecy book summary, reviews and downlod

The Romanov Prophecy

4/5$8.99

Ekaterinburg, Russia: July 16, 1918. Ten months have passed since Nicholas II’s reign was cut short by revolutionaries. Tonight, the White Army advances on the town where the Ts...

The Covenant book summary, reviews and downlod

The Covenant

4.5/5$14.99

James A. Michener’s masterly chronicle of South Africa is an epic tale of adventurers, scoundrels, and ministers, the best and worst of two continents who carve an empire out of a vast wil...

The Paris Vendetta book summary, reviews and downlod

The Paris Vendetta

4/5$6.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER •  “All the Steve Berry hallmarks are here: scale, scope, sweep, history—plus breathless second-by-second suspense. I love this guy.”—Lee C...

The Third Secret book summary, reviews and downlod

The Third Secret

4/5$9.99

Explosive in both its pace and its revelations, The Third Secret is a remarkable international thriller. Bestselling author Steve Berry tackles some of the most controversial ideas of our ...

Sayonara book summary, reviews and downlod

Sayonara

4/5$4.99

From a great master of historical fiction comes a brilliant tale of love amid war. James A. Michener combines powerful storytelling with deep sensitivity in this novel of a U.S. Army man who...

Hawaii book summary, reviews and downlod

Hawaii

4.5/5$11.99

Pulitzer Prize–winning author James A. Michener brings Hawaii’s epic history vividly to life in a classic saga that has captivated readers since its initial publication in 1959. As the v...

The Patriot Threat book summary, reviews and downlod

The Patriot Threat

4/5$9.99

Steve Berry's New York Times bestseller, The Patriot Threat, finds Cotton Malone racing to stop a rogue ex-KGB agent plotting revenge against the United States.

Legacy book summary, reviews and downlod

Legacy

3.5/5$4.99

In this sweeping novel inspired by the Iran-Contra affair, master storyteller James A. Michener conjures the triumphs and tragedies of one family and their dynamic role in the history of the...

Return to Paradise book summary, reviews and downlod

Return to Paradise

4/5$10.99

James A. Michener, the master of historical fiction, revisits the scenes of his first great work, Tales of the South Pacific, the Pulitzer Prize winner that brought him international ...

The Emperor's Tomb (with bonus short story The Balkan Escape) book summary, reviews and downlod

The Emperor's Tomb (with bonus short story The Balkan Escape)

4/5$9.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERFormer Justice Department operative Cotton Malone has received an anonymous note carrying an unfamiliar Web address. Logging on, he’s shocked to...

The Templar Legacy book summary, reviews and downlod

The Templar Legacy

4/5$9.99

The ancient order of the Knights Templar possessed untold wealth and absolute power over kings and popes . . . until the Inquisition, when they were wiped from the face of the earth, th...

The Columbus Affair: A Novel (with bonus short story The Admiral's Mark) book summary, reviews and downlod

The Columbus Affair: A Novel (with bonus short story The Admiral's Mark)

4/5$9.99

A family’s secret, a ruthless fanatic, and a covert arm of the American government—all are linked by a single puzzling possibility: What if everyt...

The Warsaw Protocol book summary, reviews and downlod

The Warsaw Protocol

4/5$9.99

In New York Times bestseller Steve Berry’s latest Cotton Malone adventure, one by one the seven precious relics of the Arma Christi, the weapons of Christ, are disappearing from ...

Chesapeake book summary, reviews and downlod

Chesapeake

4/5$10.99

In this classic novel, James A. Michener brings his grand epic tradition to bear on the four-hundred-year saga of America’s Eastern Shore, from its Native American roots to the modern age....

The Source book summary, reviews and downlod

The Source

4/5$8.99

In his signature style of grand storytelling, James A. Michener transports us back thousands of years to the Holy Land. Through the discoveries of modern archaeologists excavating the site o...

The Charlemagne Pursuit book summary, reviews and downlod

The Charlemagne Pursuit

4/5$9.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESETSELLER • “Those who relish suspense in the Da Vinci Code vein will snap this one up, the best yet in the series.”—Publishers Weekly

The Jefferson Key (with bonus short story The Devil's Gold) book summary, reviews and downlod

The Jefferson Key (with bonus short story The Devil's Gold)

4/5$4.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLERFour presidents of the United States have been assassinated—in 1865, 1881, 1901, and 1963—each murder seemingly unrelated. But what i...

Three Tales from the World of Cotton Malone: The Balkan Escape, The Devil's Gold, and The Admiral's Mark (Short Stories) book summary, reviews and downlod

Three Tales from the World of Cotton Malone: The Balkan Escape, The Devil's Gold, and The Admiral's Mark (Short Stories)

4.5/5$2.99

Steve Berry’s bestselling thrillers have mesmerized suspense fans around the world, but his novels alone can’t contain all the exciting exploits of death-defying agent Cotton Malone and ...

The Lost Order book summary, reviews and downlod

The Lost Order

4.5/5$9.99

The Knights of the Golden Circle was the largest and most dangerous clandestine organization in American history. It amassed billions in stolen gold and silver, all buried in hidden cache...

The Bridges at Toko-Ri book summary, reviews and downlod

The Bridges at Toko-Ri

4/5$11.99

In one of his beloved early bestsellers, Pulitzer Prize–winning author James A. Michener crafts a tale of the American men who fought the Korean War, detailing their exploits in the air as...

The Bishop's Pawn book summary, reviews and downlod

The Bishop's Pawn

4/5$9.99

The first case of New York Times bestseller Steve Berry’s iconic hero, Cotton Malone.History notes that the ugly feud between J. Edgar Hoover and Martin Luther Ki...

Mexico book summary, reviews and downlod

Mexico

3.5/5$12.99

Pulitzer Prize–winning author James A. Michener, whose novels hurtle from the far reaches of history to the dark corners of the world, paints an intoxicating portrait of a land whose past ...

The Bridge at Andau book summary, reviews and downlod

The Bridge at Andau

4.5/5$4.99

The Bridge at Andau is James A. Michener at his most gripping. His classic nonfiction account of a doomed uprising is as searing and unforgettable as any of his bestselling novels. Fo...

Best Seller L A Cotton Audio Books of September 2021

The End of Forever: The Cassiopeia Vitt Adventure Series, Book 4 (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

The End of Forever: The Cassiopeia Vitt Adventure Series, Book 4 (Unabridged)

Mysteries & Thrillers$7.99

Tragedy has found Cassiopeia Vitt. The woman she admires most, Esmerelda Fontana, has been brutally murdered. Then Cassiopeia’s castle rebuilding project is viciously attacked and people a...

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