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Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity, or brain plasticity, is the ability of neural networks in the brain to change through growth and reorganization. These changes range from individual neuron pathways making new connections, to systematic adjustments like cortical remapping. Examples of neuroplasticity include circuit and network changes that result from learning a new ability, environmental influences, practice, and psychological stress.Neuroplasticity was once thought by neuroscientists to manifest only during childhood, but research in the latter half of the 20th century showed that many aspects of the brain can be altered (or are "plastic") even through adulthood. However, the developing brain exhibits a higher degree of plasticity than the adult brain. Activity-dependent plasticity can have significant implications for healthy development, learning, memory, and recovery from brain damage. History Origin The term "plasticity" was first applied to behavior in 1890 by William James in The Principles of Psychology. The first person to use the term neural plasticity appears to have been the Polish neuroscientist Jerzy Konorski.In 1793, Italian anatomist Michele Vicenzo Malacarne described experiments in which he paired animals, trained one of the pair extensively for years, and then dissected both. He discovered that the cerebellums of the trained animals were substantially larger. But these findings were eventually forgotten. The idea that the brain and its function are not fixed throughout adulthood was proposed in 1890 by William James in The Principles of Psychology, though the idea was largely neglected. Until around the 1970s, neuroscientists believed that the brain's structure and function was essentially fixed throughout adulthood.While the brain was commonly understood as a nonrenewable organ in the early 1900s, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, father of neuroscience, used the term neuronal plasticity to describe nonpathological changes in the structure of adult brains. Based on his renowned Neuron doctrine, Cajal first described the neuron as the fundamental unit of the nervous system that later served as an essential foundation to develop the concept of neural plasticity. He used the term plasticity in reference to his work on findings of degeneration and regeneration in the central nervous system after a person had reached adulthood, specifically. Many neuroscientists used the term plasticity only to explain the regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, which Cajal's conceptual transfer of the term gave rise to a controversial discussion.The term has since been broadly applied: Given the central importance of neuroplasticity, an outsider would be forgiven for assuming that it was well defined and that a basic and universal framework served to direct current and future hypotheses and experimentation. Sadly, however, this is not the case. While many neuroscientists use the word neuroplasticity as an umbrella term it means different things to different researchers in different subfields ... In brief, a mutually agreed upon framework does not appear to exist. Research and discovery In 1923, Karl Lashley conducted experiments on rhesus monkeys that demonstrated changes in neuronal pathways, which he concluded were evidence of plasticity. Despite this, and other research that suggested plasticity took place, neuroscientists did not widely accept the idea of neuroplasticity. In 1945, Justo Gonzalo concluded from his research on brain dynamics, that, contrary to the activity of the projection areas, the "central" cortical mass (more or less equidistant from the visual, tactile and auditive projection areas), would be a "maneuvering mass", rather unspecific or multisensory, with capacity to increase neural excitability and re-organize the activity by means of plasticity properties. He gives as a first example of adaptation, to see upright with reversing glasses in the Stratton experiment, and specially, several first-hand brain injuries cases in which he observed dynamic and adaptive properties in their disorders, in particular in the inverted perception disorder [e.g., see pp 260–62 Vol. I (1945), p 696 Vol. II (1950)]. He stated that a sensory signal in a projection area would be only an inverted and constricted outline that would be magnified due to the increase in recruited cerebral mass, and re-inverted due to some effect of brain plasticity, in more central areas, following a spiral growth.Marian Diamond of the University of California, Berkeley, produced the first scientific evidence of anatomical brain plasticity, publishing her research in 1964.Other significant evidence was produced in the 1960s and after, notably from scientists including Paul Bach-y-Rita, Michael Merzenich along with Jon Kaas, as well as several others.In the 1960s, Paul Bach-y-Rita invented a device that was tested on a small number of people, and involved a person sitting in a chair, in which were embedded nubs that were made to vibrate in ways that translated images received in a camera, allowing a form of vision via sensory substitution.Studies in people recovering from stroke also provided support for neuroplasticity, as regions of the brain that remained healthy could sometimes take over, at least in part, functions that had been destroyed; Shepherd Ivory Franz did work in this area.Eleanor Maguire documented changes in hippocampal structure associated with acquiring the knowledge of London's layout in local taxi drivers. A redistribution of grey matter was indicated in London Taxi Drivers compared to controls. This work on hippocampal plasticity not only interested scientists, but also engaged the public and media worldwide. Michael Merzenich is a neuroscientist who has been one of the pioneers of neuroplasticity for over three decades. He has made some of "the most ambitious claims for the field – that brain exercises may be as useful as drugs to treat diseases as severe as schizophrenia – that plasticity exists from cradle to the grave, and that radical improvements in cognitive functioning – how we learn, think, perceive, and remember are possible even in the elderly." Merzenich's work was affected by a crucial discovery made by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel in their work with kittens. The experiment involved sewing one eye shut and recording the cortical brain maps. Hubel and Wiesel saw that the portion of the kitten's brain associated with the shut eye was not idle, as expected. Instead, it processed visual information from the open eye. It was "…as though the brain didn't want to waste any 'cortical real estate' and had found a way to rewire itself."This implied neuroplasticity during the critical period. However, Merzenich argued that neuroplasticity could occur beyond the critical period. His first encounter with adult plasticity came when he was engaged in a postdoctoral study with Clinton Woosley. The experiment was based on observati.... Discover the Lara Van Hulzen popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Lara Van Hulzen books.

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Saving Drew book summary, reviews and downlod

Saving Drew

4.5/5$3.99

Recovering from a shoulder injury that could end his career as starting pitcher of the New York Empires, Drew MacIntire comes to Silver Bay for solitude and privacy from the media frenzy his...

Get To Me book summary, reviews and downlod

Get To Me

5/5$0.99

Aimee can identify a killer. Dane can keep her safe. But is he willing to face his past to do it? When Aimee Jansenn stumbles upon a drug deal gone bad she comes face to face with a killer. ...

Uma Receita Para Romance book summary, reviews and downlod

Uma Receita Para Romance

0/5$4.99

Dança, culinária e leilão. Seriam estes os ingredientes perfeitos de uma receita para romance? Wes St. Claire voltou a Marietta para visitar a família e ajudar o pai em alguns...

Return to Silver Bay book summary, reviews and downlod

Return to Silver Bay

4.5/5$3.99

Maggie Mitchell returns to her hometown of Silver Bay expecting to bury her father, her past, and move on. But when Josh Harden, her high school sweetheart, shows up, her world gets turned a...

Rescue Me book summary, reviews and downlod

Rescue Me

5/5$0.99

Keith is a soldier with a wounded heart.Torie’s secrets haunt her.Can they trust love enough to mend what’s broken?Torie Walker is a police officer with a past sh...

Remember Me book summary, reviews and downlod

Remember Me

5/5$0.99

Detective Ben Russo is in trouble. He just can’t remember why.When a car accident lands Ben in the hospital, he can’t recall anything about his life. What he does know is he...

His Christmas Bride book summary, reviews and downlod

His Christmas Bride

4.5/5$3.99

Lucas lives in New York, but he's always loved Marietta. When he gets engaged, he decides Montana is exactly the place to get married. Tanner Ranch brings back happy memories of horseback ri...

Finding Her Montana Cowboy book summary, reviews and downlod

Finding Her Montana Cowboy

4.5/5$3.99

Former rodeo star Wyatt Emmerson leads a quiet life. He's busy working with his dad and raising his daughter on his own. Romance is the last thing on his mind, but when McKenna St. Claire cr...

Winning His Heart book summary, reviews and downlod

Winning His Heart

4/5$3.99

Michael St. Claire, a widower and single father, fears his heart could never make room for another. Between raising his young daughter Annalise and rebuilding his dreams as a race car driver...

A Recipe for Romance book summary, reviews and downlod

A Recipe for Romance

4.5/5$3.99

Wes planned a drive by trip to Marietta, Montana to help his dad close a business deal and then to head back to his life in New York. But when his dad volunteers him for the Bachelor Bake Of...

Loving Kate book summary, reviews and downlod

Loving Kate

4/5$3.99

Kate MacIntire is determined to live life on her own terms. No muss, no fuss. But when motorcycle riding, free spirit Jack Harden enters the picture, she has no choice but to reconsider.

Guarding Paragon book summary, reviews and downlod

Guarding Paragon

0/5$3.99

Avery has a normal college life—as long as she is awake. When she falls asleep, her world becomes that of Paragon, an ancient garden of such love and beauty that she longs to stay and neve...

Best Seller Lara Van Hulzen Audio Books of June 2021

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