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Native Hawaiians (also known as Indigenous Hawaiians, Kānaka Maoli, Aboriginal Hawaiians, or simply Hawaiians; Hawaiian: kānaka, kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii was settled at least 800 years ago with the voyage of Polynesians from the Society Islands. The settlers gradually became detached from their original homeland and developed a distinct Hawaiian culture and identity in their new isolated home. That included the creation of new religious and cultural structures, mostly in response to the new living environment and the need for a structured belief system through which to pass on knowledge. Hence, the Hawaiian religion focuses on ways to live and relate to the land and instills a sense of communal living as well as a specialized spatial awareness. The Hawaiian Kingdom was formed in 1795, when Kamehameha the Great, of the independent island of Hawaiʻi, conquered the independent islands of Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi and unified them. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian archipelago became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Kingdom. The Kingdom saw an influx of immigrants from the United States and Asia. The Kingdom became a Republic following its overthrow in 1893, and was annexed by the United States in 1898. An ongoing Hawaiian sovereignty movement exists seeking autonomy or independence for the state of Hawaii. In the 2010 U.S. census, People with Native Hawaiian ancestry reported as residents in all 50 of the U.S. States, as well as Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. Within the U.S. in 2010 540,013 residents reported Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander alone in 2010, of which 135,422 lived in the State of Hawaii. In the United States overall, 1.2 million people identified as Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, either alone or in combination with one or more other races. The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population was one of the fastest-growing race groups between 2000 and 2010 in the United States. History The history of Native Hawaiians, like the history of Hawaii, is commonly classified into four major periods: the pre-unification period (before c. 1800) the unified monarchy and republic period (c. 1800 to 1898) the U.S. territorial period (1898 to 1959) the U.S. statehood period (1959 to present)Origins One theory is that the first Polynesians arrived in Hawaii in the 3rd century from the Marquesas by travelling in groups of waka, and were followed by Tahitians in AD 1300, who then conquered the original inhabitants. Another is that a single, extended period of settlement populated the islands. Evidence for a Tahitian conquest of the islands include the legends of Hawaiʻiloa and the navigator-priest Paʻao, who is said to have made a voyage between Hawaii and the island of "Kahiki" (Tahiti) and introduced many customs. Early historians, such as Abraham Fornander and Martha Beckwith, subscribed to this Tahitian invasion theory, but later historians, such as Patrick Kirch, do not mention it. King Kalākaua claimed that Paʻao was from Samoa. Some writers claim that other settlers in Hawaiʻi were forced into remote valleys by newer arrivals. They claim that stories about the Menehune, little people who built heiau and fishponds, prove the existence of ancient peoples who settled the islands before the Hawaiians, but similar stories exist throughout Polynesia. Demographics At the time of Captain Cook's arrival in 1778, the population is estimated to have been between 250,000 and 800,000. This is the peak population of singularly Native Hawaiian people on the islands, with the 293,000 of today being made of both dual lineage Native Hawaiian and mixed lineage/ multi-racial Native Hawaiians. This was also the highest number of any Native Hawaiians living on the island until 2014, a period of almost 226 years. This long spread was marked by a die-off of 1-in-17 Native Hawaiians, to begin with, which would gradually increase to almost 8–10 Hawaiians having died from the first contact to the lowest demographic total in 1950. Over the span of the first century after the first contact, the native Hawaiians were nearly wiped out by diseases introduced to the islands. Native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, measles, or whooping cough, among others. These diseases were similarly catastrophic to indigenous populations in the continental United States, and show a larger trend of violence and disease wiping out native people. The 1900 U.S. census identified 37,656 residents of full or partial native Hawaiian ancestry. Some Hawaiians left the islands during the period of the Kingdom of Hawaii like Harry Maitey, who became the first Hawaiian in Prussia. Over the span of the first century after the first contact, the native Hawaiians were nearly wiped out by diseases introduced to the islands. The 2000 U.S. census identified 283,430 residents of Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander ancestry, showing a dramatic growth trend since annexation by the U.S. in 1898. This rapid increase in population has also occurred outside of the island, with many of the populations in California and Washington experiencing dramatic increases in total population. This has been part of the larger Hawaiian cultural revival and reflects an important resurgence in the presence of Native Hawaiians in the fabric of modern island life. Culture and arts Several cultural preservation societies and organizations have been established over the course of the 20th century. The largest of those institutions is the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, established in 1889 and designated as the Hawaiʻi State Museum of Natural and Cultural History. The Bishop Museum houses the largest collection of native Hawaiian artifacts, documents, and other information available for educational use. Most objects are held for preservation alone. The museum has links with major colleges and universities throughout the world to facilitate research. With the support of the Bishop Museum, the Polynesian Voyaging Society's double-hulled canoe, Hōkūleʻa, has contributed to rediscovery of native Hawaiian culture, especially in the revival of celestial navigation, by which ancient Polynesians originally settled Hawaiʻi. Religion and society The Native Hawaiians initially began with a culture that was similar to their Polynesian roots, but with time and isolation began to develop their own religion and cultural practices. This new worship centered on the ideas of land (aina) and family (ohana) with land being held as a sacred part of life and family going beyond blood. These concepts are very different from Western views of familial structure and ownership. Much of this changed during the imperialist allotment system, and familial relations were also changed by US settler policies. The Hawaiian religion is polytheistic but mostly focuses on two gods. These are Wākea and Papahānaumoku, the mother and father.... Discover the Learn Like A Native popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Learn Like A Native books.

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    Carina M. Grisolia

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    The Everything Learning Russian Book Enhanced Edition

    Julia Stakhnevich

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    Louie Jerome

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    The Art of Butterfly Gardening

    Mathew Tekulsky

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    How to Create a Butterfly Garden

    Mathew Tekulsky

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    Not Like a Native Speaker

    Rey Chow

    Although the era of European colonialism has long passed, misgivings about the inequality of the encounters between European and nonEuropean languages persist in many parts of the ...

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    Using Japanese Slang

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    Learn English Like a Newborn to Speak it Like a Native

    Pr. Lespinasse Leveille

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    A.J. Hoge

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    Amy Gillett

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