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Native Americans, sometimes called American Indians, First Americans, or Indigenous Americans, are the Indigenous peoples of the United States or portions thereof, such as American Indians from the contiguous United States and Alaska Natives. The United States Census Bureau defines Native American as "all people indigenous to the United States and its territories, including Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders, whose data are published separately from American Indians and Alaska Natives". The U.S. census tracks data from American Indians and Alaska Native separately from Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders, who include Samoan Americans and Chamorros. The European colonization of the Americas that began in 1492 resulted in a precipitous decline in Native American population because of newly introduced diseases, including weaponized diseases and biological warfare by European colonizers, wars, ethnic cleansing, and enslavement. Numerous historians have called this a genocide. After its formation, the United States, as part of its policy of settler colonialism, continued to wage war and perpetrated massacres against many Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, and subjected them to one-sided treaties and to discriminatory government policies. These later focused on forced assimilation, into the 20th century.When the United States was established, Native American tribes were generally considered semi-independent nations, as they generally lived in communities separate from white settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent Native nations, and started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to applicable federal laws. This law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and the actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law, often differently applicable to tribal lands than to U.S. state or territory by exemption, exclusion, treaty, or superseding tribal or federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who had not yet obtained it. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed Natives to vote in state and federal elections, and extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Titles II through VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 comprise the Indian Civil Rights Act, which applies to the Native American tribes of the United States and makes many but not all of the guarantees of the U.S. Bill of Rights applicable within the tribes (that Act appears today in Title 25, sections 1301 to 1303 of the United States Code).Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in positive changes to the lives of many Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by them. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations. The states with the highest percentage of Native Americans in the U.S. are Alaska, Oklahoma, New Mexico, South Dakota, Montana, and North Dakota. Background Beginning toward the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas led to centuries of population, cultural, and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange. As most Native American groups had previously preserved their histories by means of oral traditions and artwork, the first written accounts of the contact were provided by Europeans.Ethnographers commonly classify the Indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas. Some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are: Arctic, including Aleut, Inuit, and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest (Oasisamerica)At the time of the first contact, the Indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar. The majority of Indigenous American tribes treated their hunting grounds and agricultural lands as being for the use of their entire tribe. At that time, Europeans had cultures that had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. The differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as the shifting alliances among different nations during periods of warfare, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, and social disruption. Native Americans suffered high fatality rates from contact with European diseases that were new to them, and to which they had not yet acquired immunity; the diseases were endemic to the Spanish and other Europeans, and were spread by direct contact — probably primarily contact with domesticated pigs that had been brought over by European expeditions and had then escaped. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for Indigenous populations. As William M. Denevan, a noted author and professor emeritus of geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492": "The decline of native American populations was rapid and severe, probably the greatest demographic disaster ever. Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions, particularly the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact."Estimates of the size of the pre-Columbian population of the area that today is the United States vary considerably. They range from William M. Denevan's estimate of 3.8 million- in his 1992 work, The Native Population of the Americas in 1492-to Henry F. Dobyns's 18 million in his 1983 work,Their Number Become Thinned. Because Henry F. Dobyns' is by far the highest single-point estimate among professional academic researchers, it has been criticized as "politically motivated". Dobyns' most vehement critic is perhaps David Henige, a bibliographer of African literature at .... Discover the Learn Like A Native popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Learn Like A Native books.

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  • English Foreign Language Learners and Native-Like Competence synopsis, comments

    English Foreign Language Learners and Native-Like Competence

    Carina M. Grisolia

    Learners vary hugely in the ultimate level of proficiency they achieve, with most of them failing to reach native targetlanguage competence. Since the process of L2 acquisition is ...

  • The Everything Learning Russian Book Enhanced Edition synopsis, comments

    The Everything Learning Russian Book Enhanced Edition

    Julia Stakhnevich

    Learning Russian is an exciting challengeeven saying "hello" "goodbye" seems daunting! Whether you're planning a trip to Russia or adding a valuable second language to your resume,...

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    How to Learn English

    Fabien Snauwaert

    Learn to speak English with ease, confidence and fluently, in every situation!In this book, you will learn ten new powerful habits to improve your English every day. This is the he...

  • How to Create a Butterfly Garden synopsis, comments

    How to Create a Butterfly Garden

    Mathew Tekulsky

    Author Mathew Tekulsky wrote the first book on butterfly gardening for North America, nearly 40 years ago! Butterfly gardening is the practice of attracting beautiful butterfl...

  • Using Japanese Slang synopsis, comments

    Using Japanese Slang

    Anne Kasschau & Susumu Eguchi

    So you think you learned everything in Japanese class that you needed to know? Guess again. Chances are, your teachers only covered the Grated side of the language. What about the ...

  • Effortless English synopsis, comments

    Effortless English

    A.J. Hoge

    Effortless English: Learn To Speak English Like A Native A.J. HOGE, THE WORLD'S #1 ENGLISH TEACHER, teaches you his most powerful methods for learning to speak English fluently an...

  • English Word History synopsis, comments

    English Word History

    Albert Jack

    How To Speak English Like a Native   The English language is perhaps the richest and most expressive in the world. One of the reasons for this is that we have so many wei...

  • Not Like a Native Speaker synopsis, comments

    Not Like a Native Speaker

    Rey Chow

    Although the era of European colonialism has long passed, misgivings about the inequality of the encounters between European and nonEuropean languages persist in many parts of the ...

  • Speak British English Like a Native synopsis, comments

    Speak British English Like a Native

    Louie Jerome

    Speaking British English like a native takes a little bit of practise, but with these tips and suggestions, it is possible to get excellent results, quickly.

  • Learn English Like a Newborn to Speak it Like a Native synopsis, comments

    Learn English Like a Newborn to Speak it Like a Native

    Pr. Lespinasse Leveille

    Learn English Like a Newborn to Speak it Like a Native offers you the fastest way to get rid of your foreign accent in English. Both new and old learners can use it to improve thei...

  • Speak English Like an American synopsis, comments

    Speak English Like an American

    Amy Gillett

    What's the secret to speaking English better? It's mastery of those tricky idioms and phrases that are so common in English. And learning these idioms and phrases will not onl...

  • Learn to Speak Vietnamese Like a Native synopsis, comments

    Learn to Speak Vietnamese Like a Native

    Greg Vanderford

    This book is for anyone who wants to become fluent in the Vietnamese language or simply learn some conversational phrases and vocabulary before making a trip to Vietnam. It's also ...

  • The Art of Butterfly Gardening synopsis, comments

    The Art of Butterfly Gardening

    Mathew Tekulsky

    Butterfly gardening is the practice of attracting beautiful butterflies to your garden by growing common plants and flowers that they use for food and nectar. This fun and wonderfu...