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Sinn Féin ( shin FAYN, Irish: [ˌʃiːn̠ʲ ˈfʲeːnʲ]; English: "[We] Ourselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The original Sinn Féin organisation was founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith, but has split substantially on a number of occasions since then, notably giving rise in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War to the two traditionally dominant parties of southern Irish politics: Fianna Fáil, and Cumann na nGaedheal (now Fine Gael). The current Sinn Féin party took its form in 1970 after another split (with the other faction eventually becoming the Workers' Party of Ireland) and was historically associated with the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). Mary Lou McDonald became party president in February 2018. Sinn Féin is one of the two largest parties in the Northern Ireland Assembly, winning one seat less than the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) at the 2017 Northern Ireland Assembly election. In that assembly it is the largest Irish nationalist party, and it holds four ministerial posts in the power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive as of 2020. In the UK House of Commons, Sinn Féin holds seven of Northern Ireland's 18 seats, making it the second-largest bloc after the DUP; there it follows a policy of abstentionism, refusing to sit in parliament or vote on bills. In the Oireachtas (the lower house and upper house of the Republic of Ireland), it is the third largest party. However in Dáil Éireann Sinn Féin currently sits as the main opposition and the second largest party having won the largest share of first-preference votes at the 2020 Irish general election. Name The phrase "Sinn Féin" is Irish for "Ourselves" or "We Ourselves", although it is frequently mistranslated as "ourselves alone" (from "Sinn Féin Amháin", an early-20th-century slogan). The name is an assertion of Irish national sovereignty and self-determination; i.e., the Irish people governing themselves, rather than being part of a political union with Great Britain under the Westminster Parliament. A split in January 1970, mirroring a split in the IRA, led to the emergence of two groups calling themselves Sinn Féin. One, under the continued leadership of Tomás Mac Giolla, became known as "Sinn Féin (Gardiner Place)", or "Official Sinn Féin"; the other, led by Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, became known as "Sinn Féin (Kevin Street)", or "Provisional Sinn Féin". As the "Officials" dropped all mention of Sinn Féin from their name in 1982–instead calling themselves the Workers' Party of Ireland–the term "Provisional Sinn Féin" has fallen out of use, and the party is now known simply as "Sinn Féin". Sinn Féin members have been referred to colloquially as "Shinners", a term intended as a pejorative. History 1905–1922 Sinn Féin was founded on 28 November 1905, when, at the first annual Convention of the National Council, Arthur Griffith outlined the Sinn Féin policy, "to establish in Ireland's capital a national legislature endowed with the moral authority of the Irish nation". Its initial political platform was both conservative and monarchist, advocating for an Anglo-Irish dual monarchy unified with the British Crown (inspired by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867). The party contested the 1908 North Leitrim by-election, where it secured 27% of the vote. Thereafter, both support and membership fell. At the 1910 Ard Fheis (party conference) the attendance was poor, and there was difficulty finding members willing to take seats on the executive. In 1914, Sinn Féin members, including Griffith, joined the anti-Redmond Irish Volunteers, which was referred to by Redmondites and others as the "Sinn Féin Volunteers". Although Griffith himself did not take part in the Easter Rising of 1916, many Sinn Féin members did, as they were also members of both the Volunteers and the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Government and newspapers dubbed the Rising "the Sinn Féin Rising". After the Rising, republicans came together under the banner of Sinn Féin, and at the 1917 Ard Fheis the party committed itself for the first time to the establishment of an Irish Republic. In the 1918 general election, Sinn Féin won 73 of Ireland's 105 seats, and in January 1919, its MPs assembled in Dublin and proclaimed themselves Dáil Éireann, the parliament of Ireland. The party supported the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence, and members of the Dáil government negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the British government in 1921. In the Dáil debates that followed, the party divided on the Treaty. The pro-Treaty and anti-Treaty components (led by Michael Collins and Éamon de Valera respectively) managed to agree on a "Coalition Panel" of Sinn Féin candidates to stand in the 1922 general election. In the wake of the vote, anti-Treaty members walked out of the Dáil, and pro- and anti-Treaty members took opposite sides in the ensuing Civil War. 1923–1970 Pro-Treaty Dáil deputies and other Treaty supporters formed a new party, Cumann na nGaedheal, on 27 April 1923 at a meeting in Dublin, where delegates agreed on a constitution and political programme. Cumann na nGaedheal went on to govern the new Irish Free State for nine years. (It merged with two other organisations to form Fine Gael in 1933.) Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin members continued to boycott the Dáil. At a special Ard Fheis in March 1926, de Valera proposed that elected members be allowed to take their seats in the Dáil if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed. When his motion was defeated, de Valera resigned from Sinn Féin; on 16 May 1926, he founded his own party, Fianna Fáil, which was dedicated to republicanising the Free State from within its political structures. He took most Sinn Féin Teachtaí Dála (TDs) with him. De Valera's resignation meant also the loss of financial support from America. The rump Sinn Féin party could field no more than fifteen candidates, and won only six seats in the June 1927 general election, a level of support not seen since before 1916. Vice-President and de facto leader Mary MacSwiney announced that the party simply did not have the funds to contest the second election called that year, declaring "no true Irish citizen can vote for any of the other parties". Fianna Fáil came to power at the 1932 general election (to begin what would be an unbroken 16-year spell in government) and went on to long dominate politics in the independent Irish state. An attempt in the 1940s to access funds that had been put in the care of the High Court led to the Sinn Féin Funds case, which the party lost and in which the judge ruled that it was not the legal successor to the Sinn Féin of 1917. At the 1955 United Kingdom general election, two Sinn Féin candidates were elected to Westminster, but the party's vote decreased at the following election in 1959, during the IRA's Bor.... Discover the Louise Fein popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Louise Fein books.

Best Seller Louise Fein Books of July 2021

People Like Us book summary, reviews and downlod

People Like Us

0/5$9.99

Shortlisted for the RSL Christopher Bland Prize and the RNA Historical Romantic Novel Award 2021'A compelling tale of forbidden love set in 1930's Leipzig' Indep...

Daughter of the Reich book summary, reviews and downlod

Daughter of the Reich

4.5/5$1.99

“[B]eautifully written and emotional wrenching…its dynamic characters present a timely truth we should all grasp and embrace: We must stand up against those who preach hate.” —K...

A Filha do Reich book summary, reviews and downlod

A Filha do Reich

0/5$15.99

Um romance inspirado em factos reais Uma rapariga alemã. Um rapaz judeu. Um amor capaz de mudar tudo aquilo em que sempre acreditámos. LEIPZIG, ALEMA...

Dcera říše book summary, reviews and downlod

Dcera říše

0/5$10.99

Hetty je dokonalá německá dívka. Její otec vyzdvihuje nacistickou ideologii, její bratr nadšeně vstoupí do Hitlerjugend. Hetty bezmezně věří ve svou zemi i lidi, kteří jí vl...

The Hidden Child book summary, reviews and downlod

The Hidden Child

0/5Pre-Order

Author's debut novel People Like Us shortlisted for the RSL Christopher Bland Prize and the RNA Historical Romantic Novel Award 2021From the outside, Eleanor and Ed...

La figlia del Reich book summary, reviews and downlod

La figlia del Reich

0/5$13.99

Lipsia, anni Trenta. Hetty è una ragazza impetuosa e piena di entusiasmo, cresciuta nei luminosi valori di rinascita predicati dal Führer. Crede ciecamente in lui e nella sua visione di un...

La Fille du Reich book summary, reviews and downlod

La Fille du Reich

0/5$10.99

« La Fille du Reich est d’abord une belle et poignante histoire d’amour à la Roméo et Juliette. Mais c’est aussi un roman qui fait cruellement écho à notre actualité et qui nous ...

The Hidden Child book summary, reviews and downlod

The Hidden Child

0/5Pre-Order

In this new historical novel by the author of Daughter of the Reich, Londoners Eleanor and Edward Hamilton have wealth, status, and a happy marriage—but the 1929 financial crash is looming...

La hija del Reich book summary, reviews and downlod

La hija del Reich

0/5$6.99

Leipzig, Alemania, años 30. Hetty Heinrich es la obediente hija de un periodista convertido en nazi de alto rango, deseosa de desempeñar su papel en el nuevo Reich. Pero ...

Best Seller Louise Fein Audio Books of July 2021

Daughter of the Reich MP3 Audiobook

Daughter of the Reich

Fiction$16.99

For fans of The Nightingale and All the Light We Cannot See, a spellbinding story of impossible love set against the backdrop of the Nazi regime.She must choose be...

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