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The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul the Apostle to a number of Early Christian communities in Galatia. Scholars have suggested that this is either the Roman province of Galatia in southern Anatolia, or a large region defined by an ethnic group of Celtic people in central Anatolia.Paul is principally concerned with the controversy surrounding gentile Christians and the Mosaic Law during the Apostolic Age. Paul argues that the gentile Galatians do not need to adhere to the tenets of the Mosaic Law, particularly religious male circumcision, by contextualizing the role of the law in light of the revelation of Christ. The Epistle to the Galatians has exerted enormous influence on the history of Christianity, the development of Christian theology, and the study of the Apostle Paul.The central dispute in the letter concerns the question of how Gentiles could convert to Christianity, which shows that this letter was written at a very early stage in church history, when the vast majority of Christians were Jewish or Jewish proselytes, which historians refer to as the Jewish Christians. Another indicator that the letter is early is that there is no hint in the letter of a developed organization within the Christian community at large. This puts it during the lifetime of Paul himself. Background As with all the Bible, the original of the letter (autograph) is not known to survive. Papyrus 46, the earliest reasonably complete version available to scholars today, dates to approximately AD 200, approximately 150 years after the original was presumably drafted. This papyrus is fragmented in a few areas, causing some of the original text to be missing, "however, through careful research relating to paper construction, handwriting development, and the established principles of textual criticism, scholars can be rather certain about where these errors and changes appeared and what the original text probably said." Authorship and date Authorship In the past, a small number of scholars have questioned Paul's authorship of Galatians, such as Bruno Bauer, Abraham Loman, C. H. Weisse and Frank R. McGuire. Currently, Biblical scholars agree that Galatians is a true example of Paul's writing. The main arguments in favor of the authenticity of Galatians include its style and themes, which are common to the core letters of the Pauline corpus. George S. Duncan described the authenticity of Paul as its author as "unquestioned… In every line it betrays its origin as a genuine letter of Paul." Moreover, Paul's possible description of the Council of Jerusalem gives a different point of view from the description in Acts 15:2–29, if it is, in fact, describing the Jerusalem Council. Date A majority of scholars agree that Galatians was written between the late 40s and early 50s, although some date the original composition to c. 50–60. Jon Jordan notes that an interesting point to be made in the search for the dating of Galatians concerns whether or not it is a response to the Council of Jerusalem or a factor leading up to the Council. He writes, "did Paul's argument in Galatians flow out of the Jerusalem Council's decision, or did it come before the Jerusalem Council and possibly help shape that very decision?" It would have been enormously helpful to Paul's argument if he could have mentioned the decision of the Council of Jerusalem that Gentiles should not be circumcised. The absence of this argument from Paul strongly implies Galatians was written prior to the council. Since the council took place in 48-49 AD, and Paul evangelized South Galatia in 47-48 AD, the most plausible date for the writing of Galatians is 48 AD. Audience Paul's letter is addressed "to the churches of Galatia", but the location of these churches is a matter of debate. Most scholars agree that it is a geographical reference to the Roman province in central Asia Minor, which had been settled by immigrant Celts in the 270s BC and retained Gaulish features of culture and language in Paul's day. Acts of the Apostles records Paul traveling to the "region of Galatia and Phrygia", which lies immediately west of Galatia. Some scholars have argued that the "Galatia" is an ethnic reference to a Celtic people living in northern Asia Minor. The New Testament indicates that Paul spent time personally in the cities of Galatia (Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe) during his missionary journeys. They seem to have been composed mainly of Gentile converts. After Paul's departure, the churches were led astray from Paul's trust/faith-centered teachings by individuals proposing "another gospel" (which centered on salvation through the Mosaic law, so-called legalism), whom Paul saw as preaching a "different gospel" from what Paul had taught. The Galatians appear to have been receptive to the teaching of these newcomers, and the epistle is Paul's response to what he sees as their willingness to turn from his teaching.The identity of these "opponents" is disputed. However, the majority of modern scholars view them as Jewish Christians, who taught that in order for converts to belong to the People of God, they must be subject to some or all of the Jewish Law, (i.e. Judaizers). The letter indicates controversy concerning circumcision, Sabbath observance, and the Mosaic Covenant. It would appear, from Paul's response, that they cited the example of Abraham, who was circumcised as a mark of receiving the covenant blessings. They certainly appear to have questioned Paul's authority as an apostle, perhaps appealing to the greater authority of the Jerusalem church governed by James (brother of Jesus). North Galatian view The North Galatian view holds that the epistle was written very soon after Paul's second visit to Galatia. In this view, the visit to Jerusalem, mentioned in Galatians 2:1–10, is identical with that of Acts 15, which is spoken of as a thing of the past. Consequently, the epistle seems to have been written after the Council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and the epistle to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written at roughly the same time, during Paul's stay in Macedonia in roughly 56–57.This third date takes the word "quickly" in Gal. 1:6 literally. John P. Meier suggests that Galatians was "written in the middle or late 50s, only a few years after the Antiochene incident he narrates". Eminent Biblical scholar Helmut Koester also subscribes to the "North Galatian Hypothesis". Koester points out that the cities of Galatia in the north consist of Ankyra, Pessinus, and Gordium (of the Gordian Knot fame of Alexander the Great). South Galatian view The South Galatian view holds that Paul wrote Galatians before the First Jerusalem Council, probably on his way to it, and that it was written to churches he had presumably planted during either his time in Tarsus (he would have traveled a sh.... Discover the Pamela Eisenbaum popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Pamela Eisenbaum books.

Best Seller Pamela Eisenbaum Books of January 2022

The Second Coming e-book Download

The Second Coming

Walker PercyMarch 29, 2011$1.99

A successful man’s midlife crisis may just provide a twisted path to happiness in this New York Times –bestselling novel by the author of The Last Gentleman .  Now in his late forti...

The Summer Proposal e-book Download

The Summer Proposal

Vi KeelandJanuary 10, 2022$3.99

From #1 New York Times Bestselling author Vi Keeland comes a new, sexy standalone novel. The first time I met Max Yearwood was on a blind date. Max was insanely gorgeous, funny, and our chem...

The Lost Mother e-book Download

The Lost Mother

Catherine HokinJanuary 28, 2021$0.99

She looked at the empty cradle where her baby had been. Her heart felt tattered and empty, like the hollow streets of Berlin after its people began to live in fear. Berlin, 1934. Homes once ...

The Last Thing He Told Me e-book Download

The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$13.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A BEST BOOK OF 2021 BY REAL SIMPLE AND VOGUE A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TOD...

Eternity Road e-book Download

Eternity Road

Jack McDevittOctober 13, 2009$1.99

The Roadmakers left only ruins behind -- but what magnificent ruins! Their concrete highways still cross the continent. Their cups, combs and jewelry are found in every Illyrian home. They l...

Wish You Were Here e-book Download

Wish You Were Here

Jodi PicoultNovember 30, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • From the author of Small Great Things and The Book of Two Ways comes “a powerfully evocative story of resilience and the triumph of the human spirit...

Redeeming Love e-book Download

Redeeming Love

Francine RiversNovember 1, 1991$11.99

NATIONAL BESTSELLER • SOON TO BE A MAJOR MOTION PICTURE starring Abigail Cowen, Tom Lewis, Nina Dobrev, with Logan Marshall Green and Eric Dane, special appearance by Famke Janssen. Distri...

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One Step Too Far

Lisa GardnerJanuary 18, 2022$14.99

From #1 New York Times bestselling author Lisa Gardner, a chilling thriller about a young man gone missing in the wilderness of Wyoming…and the secrets uncovered by the desperate effort to...

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Ugly Love

Colleen HooverAugust 5, 2014$10.99

From Colleen Hoover, the #1 New York Times bestselling author of It Ends With Us, a heart-wrenching love story that proves attraction at first sight can be messy. When Tate Collins meets air...

Homegoing e-book Download

Homegoing

Yaa GyasiJune 7, 2016$1.99

A NEW YORK TIMES NOTABLE BOOK • Ghana, eighteenth century: two half sisters are born into different villages, each unaware of the other. One will marry an Englishman and lead a life o...

Just Roommates e-book Download

Just Roommates

Charity FerrellSeptember 16, 2019$4.99

The first time we meet, I’m eighteen, and he kicks me out of his bar.  Two years later, he does it again. Maliki Bridges is the town’s hottest bartender.  He thinks I’m a spo...

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End of Days

Brad TaylorJanuary 11, 2022$14.99

Pike Logan must stop a deranged killer hell-bent on igniting an international conflagration in this explosive, action-packed thriller from New York Times bestselling author and former specia...

The Lincoln Highway e-book Download

The Lincoln Highway

Amor TowlesOctober 5, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A TODAY Show Read with Jenna Book Club Pick A New York Times Notable Book, and Chosen by Oprah Daily, Time, NPR, The Washington Post and Barack Obama as a B...

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A Flicker in the Dark

Stacy WillinghamJanuary 11, 2022$14.99

A New York Times Bestseller “A smart, edge-of-your-seat story with plot twists you’ll never see coming. Stacy Willingham’s debut will keep you turning pages long past your bedtime.” ...

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The Horsewoman

James Patterson & Mike LupicaJanuary 10, 2022$14.99

Emotions rule us all—and turn two women’s lives into a ride they can barely control in this “hugely entertaining, riveting page-turner.” —#1 bestselling author Louise Penny Ma...

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Verity

Colleen HooverOctober 5, 2021$10.99

Verity —the  #1 national bestseller— is the "sublimely creepy" psychological thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Colleen Hoover (Tarryn Fisher, New York Times be...

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The Lucky Escape

Laura Jane WilliamsJune 10, 2021$0.99

‘It whisked me away on a much-needed holiday’ Beth O’Leary ‘I can’t remember the last time a book made me forget I had a phone’ Stacey Halls ‘What an absolute delight!’ Emily...

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A Short History of Humanity

Johannes Krause, Thomas Trappe & Caroline WaightApril 13, 2021$1.99

“Thrilling . . . a bracing summary of what we have learned [from] ‘archaeogenetics’—the study of ancient DNA . . . Krause and Trappe capture the excitement of this young field.”—...

Dark Sky e-book Download

Dark Sky

C. J. BoxMarch 2, 2021$1.99

Wyoming game warden Joe Pickett must accompany a Silicon Valley CEO on a hunting trip--but soon learns that he himself may be the hunted--in the thrilling new novel from #1 New York Times be...

Targeted e-book Download

Targeted

Stephen HunterJanuary 18, 2022$14.99

Pulitzer Prize winner and New York Times bestselling author Stephen Hunter returns with a taut, white-knuckled thriller featuring master sniper Bob Lee Swagger as he protects a group of poli...

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The Wish

Nicholas SparksSeptember 28, 2021$2.99

With exclusive travel photos and a special letter from the Author, only available for e-readers. From the author of The Longest Ride and The Return comes a novel about the enduring legacy of...

Secret Star e-book Download

Secret Star

Nora RobertsSeptember 14, 2020$2.99

The Stars of Mithra trilogy comes to a gripping conclusion in this classic story from #1 New York Times bestselling author Nora Roberts! Lieutenant Seth Buchanan is astonished when the beaut...

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The Complete Sinner Saints Box Set

Adrienne BellFebruary 8, 2017$0.99

The men of Macmillan Security are waiting...are you ready? The bestselling Sinner Saints series available in one complete set! The men of Macmillan Security have seen it all and done it all....

The Wife Stalker e-book Download

The Wife Stalker

Liv ConstantineMay 19, 2020$2.99

The bestselling author of The Last Mrs. Parrish—a Reese Witherspoon Book Club pick—returns with a psychological thriller, filled with chilling serpentine twists, about a woman fighting t...

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Robert B. Parker's Bye Bye Baby

Ace AtkinsJanuary 18, 2022$14.99

Boston PI Spenser takes on a new case in this installment in Robert B. Parker's iconic New York Times bestselling series. Carolina Garcia-Ramirez is a rising star in national politics, takin...

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The Eye of the World

Robert JordanSeptember 15, 2000$10.99

The Wheel of Time is now an original series on Prime Video, starring Rosamund Pike as Moiraine! The Eye of the World , the first novel in Robert Jordan's #1 New York Times bestselling epic f...

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The Inn at Tansy Falls

Cate WoodsMay 12, 2021$0.99

The Inn at Tansy Falls looked like a movie set from the romcoms we loved to watch on Sunday afternoons where the heroine is adorably clumsy, cherry pie is a menu staple and kissing in the ra...

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The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo

Taylor Jenkins ReidJune 13, 2017$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “If you ’ re looking for a book to take on holiday this summer, The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo has got all the glitz and glamour to make it a perfect beach r...

Atomic Habits e-book Download

Atomic Habits

James ClearOctober 16, 2018$14.99

The #1 New York Times bestseller . Over 3 million copies sold! Tiny Changes, Remarkable Results No matter your goals, Atomic Habits offers a proven framework for improving--every day. James ...

The Bettencourt Affair e-book Download

The Bettencourt Affair

Tom SanctonAugust 8, 2017$1.99

An NPR Best Book of 2017 Heiress to the nearly forty-billion-dollar L’Oréal fortune, Liliane Bettencourt was the world’s richest woman and the fourteenth wealthiest person. But her gild...

The Last Anniversary e-book Download

The Last Anniversary

Liane MoriartyApril 20, 2010$2.99

From Liane Moriarty, author of the #1 New York Times bestsellers Big Little Lies and Truly Madly Guilty, comes an unforgettable novel defined by her signature sharp wit, page-turning st...

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The Night of the Party

Anna-Lou WeatherleyJanuary 12, 2022$0.99

‘ Wow, Wow, Wo w… What a read!... I could not put this book down … I devoured every word, every page and every chapter. I cannot recommend this book highly enough.’ Goodreads Reviewe...

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

The Maid e-book Download

The Maid

Nita ProseJanuary 4, 2022$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • GOOD MORNING AMERICA BOOK CLUB PICK • “A twist-and-turn whodunit, set in a five-star hotel, from the perspective of the maid who finds the body. Think ...

The Other Miss Bridgerton e-book Download

The Other Miss Bridgerton

Julia QuinnNovember 20, 2018$1.99

There were Bridgertons before the eight alphabetically named siblings. In the third of the Bridgerton Prequel series, we go back to where it all began. . . from #1 New York Times bestselling...

Kitchen e-book Download

Kitchen

Banana YoshimotoSeptember 15, 2015$1.99

The acclaimed debut of Japan’s “master storyteller” ( Chicago Tribune ).   With the publication of  Kitchen,  the dazzling English-language debut that is still her best-...

Sex with Presidents e-book Download

Sex with Presidents

Eleanor HermanSeptember 22, 2020$1.99

In this fascinating work of popular history, the New York Times bestselling author of Sex with Kings and The Royal Art of Poison uncovers the bedroom secrets of American presidents and explo...

Made in Manhattan e-book Download

Made in Manhattan

Lauren LayneJanuary 18, 2022$11.99

From the New York Times bestselling author of the Central Park Pact comes a reverse My Fair Lady for the modern era about a pampered and privileged Manhattan socialite who must teach an unpo...

The Runaway e-book Download

The Runaway

Nick PetrieJanuary 18, 2022$14.99

"Petrie has a preternatural talent for ratcheting up suspense."-- New York Times Book Review   When Peter Ash rescues a stranded woman, he finds she ’ s in far deeper trouble than he ...

Simply Irresistible e-book Download

Simply Irresistible

Rachel GibsonMarch 20, 2012$1.99

Georgeanne Howard leaves her fiancé at the altar when she realizes she can't marry a man old enough to be her grandfather, no matter how rich he is. Hockey superstar John Kowalsky unknowing...

November 9 e-book Download

November 9

Colleen HooverNovember 10, 2015$10.99

Beloved #1 New York Times bestselling author of It Ends With Us and All Your Perfects returns with an unforgettable love story between a writer and his unexpected muse. Fallon meets Ben, an ...

Before She Disappeared e-book Download

Before She Disappeared

Lisa GardnerJanuary 19, 2021$9.99

THE INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER From #1 New York Times bestselling author Lisa Gardner, a propulsive thriller featuring an ordinary woman who will stop at nothing to find the missing p...

Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman e-book Download

Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman

Robert K. MassieNovember 8, 2011$1.99

“[A] tale of power, perseverance and passion . . . a great story in the hands of a master storyteller.”— The Wall Street Journal The Pulitzer Prize–winning author of Peter the Great,...

Invisible e-book Download

Invisible

Danielle SteelJanuary 4, 2022$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • In this riveting novel from Danielle Steel, a gifted young woman must grapple with the legacy of a troubled childhood in order to pursue her dreams. Ant...

The Judge's List e-book Download

The Judge's List

John GrishamOctober 19, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BEST SELLER • Investigator Lacy Stoltz follows the trail of a serial killer, and closes in on a shocking suspect—a sitting judge—in “one of the best crime reads of ...

The Rakehell’s Seduction e-book Download

The Rakehell’s Seduction

Lauren SmithFebruary 6, 2017$0.99

HE’S MADE A DANGEROUS WAGER Ambrose Worthing is no gentleman. He’s a proud cold-hearted rake who’s determined to stay a bachelor forever. He enjoys bedding a different woman every nigh...

A Home for Unloved Orphans e-book Download

A Home for Unloved Orphans

Rachel WessonOctober 26, 2020$0.99

“Heartwrenching… I loved each and every minute… Reminded me of JoJo Moyes The Giver of Stars with a dash of Kathryn Stockett’s The Help … An emotional rollercoaster.” Rachel M Wr...

Enough Already e-book Download

Enough Already

Valerie BertinelliJanuary 18, 2022$14.99

Beloved actress, Food Network personality, and New York Times bestselling author Valerie Bertinelli reflects on life at sixty and beyond. Behind the curtain of her happy on-screen ...

Chancellorsville e-book Download

Chancellorsville

Stephen W. SearsDecember 16, 2014$1.99

A new look at the Civil War battle that led to Stonewall Jackson’s death: A Publishers Weekly Best Book of the Year and “tour de force in military history” ( Library Journal ).   ...

The Killer's Girl e-book Download

The Killer's Girl

Helen PhiferDecember 10, 2020$0.99

‘Mama, wake up.’ The little girl reached for her mother’s face with one pudgy hand. But the eyes stayed closed, and the blood continued to trickle across the floor. When the body of a ...

Best Seller Pamela Eisenbaum Audio Books of January 2022

Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged) audiobook
Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged)James Clear$14.99

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Greenlights (Unabridged) audiobook
Greenlights (Unabridged)Matthew McConaughey$14.99

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Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged) audiobook
Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged)David Goggins$21.99

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Will (Unabridged) audiobook
Will (Unabridged)Will Smith$19.99

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The Maid: A Novel (Unabridged) audiobook
The Maid: A Novel (Unabridged)Nita Prose$14.99

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The Four Agreements (Unabridged) audiobook
The Four Agreements (Unabridged)Don Miguel Ruiz$8.99

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The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck audiobook
The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ckMark Manson$14.99

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It Ends with Us (Unabridged) audiobook
It Ends with Us (Unabridged)Colleen Hoover$12.99

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Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged) audiobook
Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged)Robert T. Kiyosaki$12.99

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The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo (Unabridged) audiobook
The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo (Unabridged)Taylor Jenkins Reid$16.99

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