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The Sukhoi Su-57 (Russian: Сухой Су-57; NATO reporting name: Felon) is a twin-engine stealth multirole fighter aircraft developed by Sukhoi. It is the product of the PAK FA (Russian: ПАК ФА, short for: Перспективный авиационный комплекс фронтовой авиации, romanized: Perspektivnyy Aviatsionnyy Kompleks Frontovoy Aviatsii, lit. ''prospective aeronautical complex of front-line air forces'') programme, which was initiated in 1999 as a more modern and affordable alternative to the MFI (Mikoyan Project 1.44/1.42). Sukhoi's internal designation for the aircraft is T-50. The Su-57 is the first aircraft in Russian military service designed with stealth technology and is intended to be the basis for a family of stealth combat aircraft. A multirole fighter capable of aerial combat as well as ground and maritime strike, the Su-57 incorporates stealth, supermaneuverability, supercruise, integrated avionics, and substantial internal payload capacity. The aircraft is expected to succeed the MiG-29 and Su-27 in the Russian military service and has also been marketed for export. The first prototype aircraft flew in 2010, and after a protracted development due to various issues that emerged during trials, including the destruction of the first production aircraft in a crash before its delivery, the first Su-57 entered service with the Russian Aerospace Forces (VKS) in December 2020. The fighter is expected to have a service life of up to 35 years. Development Origins In 1979, the Soviet Union outlined a need for next-generation fighter aircraft intended to enter service in the 1990s. The programme became the I-90 (Russian: И-90, short for: Истребитель 1990–х годов, lit. 'Fighter of the 1990s') and required the fighter to be "multifunctional" (i.e., multirole) by having substantial ground attack capabilities, and would eventually replace the MiG-29 and Su-27 in frontline tactical aviation service. Two subsequent projects were designed to meet these requirements: the MFI (Russian: МФИ, short for: Многофункциональный фронтовой истребитель, lit. 'Multifunctional Frontline Fighter') and smaller LFI (Russian: ЛФИ, Л short for: Лёгкий, lit. 'Light'), with conceptual work beginning in 1983. Mikoyan was selected for the MFI and began developing its MiG 1.44/1.42. Though not a participant in the MFI, Sukhoi started its own programme in 1983 to develop technologies for a next-generation fighter, eventually resulting in the forward-swept wing S-32 experimental aircraft, later redesignated S-37 and then Su-47. Due to a lack of funds after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the MFI was repeatedly delayed and the first flight of the MiG 1.44/1.42 prototype did not occur until 2000, nine years behind schedule. Owing to the high costs, the MFI and LFI were eventually cancelled and the Russian Ministry of Defence began work on a new next-generation fighter programme; in 1999, the ministry initiated the PAK FA or I-21 programme, with the competition announced in April 2001. Because of Russia's financial difficulties, the programme aimed to rein in costs by producing a single multirole fifth-generation fighter that would replace both the Su-27 and the MiG-29. Further cost-saving measures include an intended size in between that of the Su-27 and the MiG-29 and normal takeoff weight considerably smaller than the MiG MFI's 28.6 tonnes (63,000 lb) and the Su-47's 26.8 tonnes (59,000 lb).Sukhoi's approach to the PAK FA competition differed fundamentally from Mikoyan's; whereas Mikoyan proposed for the three design bureaus (Mikoyan, Sukhoi, and Yakovlev) to cooperate as a consortium with the winning team leading the design effort, Sukhoi's proposal had itself as the lead designer from the beginning and included a joint work agreement that covered the entire development and production cycle, from propulsion and avionics suppliers to research facilities. Additionally, the two companies had differing design philosophies for the aircraft. Mikoyan's E-721 was smaller and more affordable, with normal takeoff weight of 16–17 tonnes (35,000–37,000 lb) and powered by a pair of Klimov VK-10M engines with 10–11 tonnes (98.1–108 kN, 22,000–24,300 lbf) of thrust each. In contrast, Sukhoi's T-50 would be comparatively larger and more capable, with normal takeoff weight goal of 22–23 tonnes (49,000–51,000 lb) and powered by a pair of Lyulka-Saturn AL-41F1 engines each with maximum thrust in the 14.5-tonne (142 kN, 32,000 lbf) class.In April 2002, the Ministry of Defence selected Sukhoi over Mikoyan as the winner of the PAK FA competition and the lead design bureau of the new aircraft. In addition to the merits of the proposal, Sukhoi's experience in the 1990s was taken into account, with the successful development of various Su-27 derivatives and numerous exports ensuring its financial stability. According to the Russian Air Force Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Mikhaylov, flight tests were projected to begin in 2007. Mikoyan continued to develop its E-721 as the LMFS (Russian: ЛМФС, short for: Лёгкий многофункциональный фронтовой самолёт, lit. 'Light Multifunctional Frontline Aircraft') at its own expense. Research and development The research and development programme of the PAK FA was called Stolitsa (Russian: Столица, lit. 'Capital city'). In 2002, Alexander Davidenko selected as the T-50's chief designer at Sukhoi. The Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO) and Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAZ) would manufacture the new multi-role fighter, with KnAAZ performing final assembly at Komsomol'sk-on-Amur. Following a competition held in 2003, the Tekhnokompleks Scientific and Production Center, Ramenskoye Instrument Building Design Bureau, the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP), the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant (UOMZ) in Yekaterinburg, the Polet firm in Nizhny Novgorod and the Central Scientific Research Radio Engineering Institute in Moscow were selected for the development of the PAK FA's avionics suite. In April 2004, NPO Lyulka-Saturn (now NPO Saturn) was signed as the contractor for the AL-41F1 engines with the development designation izdeliye 117.Sukhoi used existing airframes as testbeds for various subsystems and concepts; the Su-47 was used to test internal weapon bays, and Su-27M prototypes tested the flight control system and engines. To reduce developmental risk and spread out associated costs, as well as to bridge the gap with extant fourth generation fighters, Sukhoi implemented some of its technology and features, such as propulsion and certain avionics, in an advanced derivative of the Su-27 called the T-10BM (Russian: БМ, short for: большая модернизация, lit. 'Major Modernization'), which eventu.... Discover the Su T P popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Su T P books.

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