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Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus. The swans' closest relatives include the geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe Cygnini. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, Cygninae. There are six living and many extinct species of swan; in addition, there is a species known as the coscoroba swan which is no longer considered one of the true swans. Swans usually mate for life, although "divorce" sometimes occurs, particularly following nesting failure, and if a mate dies, the remaining swan will take up with another. The number of eggs in each clutch ranges from three to eight. Etymology and terminology The English word swan, akin to the German Schwan, Dutch zwaan and Swedish svan, is derived from Indo-European root *swen ('to sound, to sing'). Young swans are known as cygnets or as swanlings; the former derives via Old French cigne or cisne (diminutive suffix et 'little') from the Latin word cygnus, a variant form of cycnus 'swan', itself from the Greek κύκνος kýknos, a word of the same meaning. An adult male is a cob, from Middle English cobbe (leader of a group); an adult female is a pen. Description Swans are the largest extant members of the waterfowl family Anatidae, and are among the largest flying birds. The largest living species, including the mute swan, trumpeter swan, and whooper swan, can reach a length of over 1.5 m (59 in) and weigh over 15 kg (33 lb). Their wingspans can be over 3.1 m (10 ft). Compared to the closely related geese, they are much larger and have proportionally larger feet and necks. Adults also have a patch of unfeathered skin between the eyes and bill. The sexes are alike in plumage, but males are generally bigger and heavier than females. The biggest species of swan ever was the extinct Cygnus falconeri, a flightless giant swan known from fossils found on the Mediterranean islands of Malta and Sicily. Its disappearance is thought to have resulted from extreme climate fluctuations or the arrival of superior predators and competitors.The Northern Hemisphere species of swan have pure white plumage, but the Southern Hemisphere species are mixed black and white. The Australian black swan (Cygnus atratus) is completely black except for the white flight feathers on its wings; the chicks of black swans are light grey. The South American black-necked swan has a white body with a black neck.Swans' legs are normally a dark blackish grey colour, except for the South American black-necked swan, which has pink legs. Bill colour varies: the four subarctic species have black bills with varying amounts of yellow, and all the others are patterned red and black. Although birds do not have teeth, swans, like other Anatidae, have beaks with serrated edges that look like small jagged 'teeth' as part of their beaks used for catching and eating aquatic plants and algae, but also molluscs, small fish, frogs, and worms. In the mute swan and black-necked swan, both sexes have a fleshy lump at the base of their bills on the upper mandible, known as knob, which is larger in males, and is condition dependent, changing seasonally. Distribution and movements Swans are generally found in temperate environments, rarely occurring in the tropics. A group of swans is called a bevy or a wedge in flight. Four (or five) species occur in the Northern Hemisphere, one species is found in Australia, one extinct species was found in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and one species is distributed in southern South America. They are absent from tropical Asia, Central America, northern South America and the entirety of Africa. One species, the mute swan, has been introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand.Several species are migratory, either wholly or partly so. The mute swan is a partial migrant, being resident over areas of Western Europe but wholly migratory in Eastern Europe and Asia. The whooper swan and tundra swan are wholly migratory, and the trumpeter swans are almost entirely migratory. There is some evidence that the black-necked swan is migratory over part of its range, but detailed studies have not established whether these movements are long or short range migration. Behaviour Swans feed in water and on land. They are almost entirely herbivorous, although they may eat small amounts of aquatic animals. In the water, food is obtained by up-ending or dabbling, and their diet is composed of the roots, tubers, stems and leaves of aquatic and submerged plants. Swans famously mate for life, and typically bond even before they reach sexual maturity. Trumpeter swans, for example, who can live as long as 24 years and only start breeding at the age of 4–7, form monogamous pair bonds as early as 20 months. "Divorce", though rare, does occur; one study of mute swans showing a 3% rate for pairs that breed successfully and 9% for pairs that do not. The pair bonds are maintained year-round, even in gregarious and migratory species like the tundra swan, which congregate in large flocks in the wintering grounds. Swans' nests are on the ground near water and about a metre across. Unlike many other ducks and geese, the male helps with the nest construction, and will also take turns incubating the eggs. Alongside the whistling ducks, swans are the only anatids that will do this. Average egg size (for the mute swan) is 113×74 mm, weighing 340 g, in a clutch size of 4 to 7, and an incubation period of 34–45 days. Swans are highly protective of their nests. They will viciously attack anything that they perceive as a threat to their chicks, including humans. One man was suspected to have drowned in such an attack. Swans' intraspecific aggressive behaviour is shown more frequent than interspecific behaviour for food and shelter. The aggression with other species is shown more in Bewick's Swans. Systematics and evolution Evidence suggests that the genus Cygnus evolved in Europe or western Eurasia during the Miocene, spreading all over the Northern Hemisphere until the Pliocene. When the southern species branched off is not known. The mute swan apparently is closest to the Southern Hemisphere Cygnus; its habits of carrying the neck curved (not straight) and the wings fluffed (not flush) as well as its bill color and knob indicate that its closest living relative is the black swan. Given the biogeography and appearance of the subgenus Olor it seems likely that these are of a more recent origin, as evidence shows by their modern ranges (which were mostly uninhabitable during the last ice age) and great similarity between the taxa. Phylogeny Species Genus Cygnus The coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) from South America, the only species in its genus, is apparently not a true swan. Its phylogenetic position is not fully resolved; it is in some aspects more similar to geese and shelducks. Fossil record The fossil record of the genus Cygn.... Discover the T L Swan popular books. Find the top 100 most popular T L Swan books.

Best Seller T L Swan Books of May 2022

Not One of Us by Debbie Herbert Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

Not One of Us by Debbie Herbert Summary

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Not One of Us by Debbie Herbert Summary The story is told from two perspectives: Jori and Officer Tegan Blackwell and then every once in a while from an unidentified 3rd characte. Jori ...

When We Believed in Mermaids by Barbara O'Neal Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

When We Believed in Mermaids by Barbara O'Neal Summary

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When We Believed in Mermaids is an engrossing, turbulent, and poignant book about two sisters, Kit and Josie. When the story begins, Kit is shocked to see her sister in the background of a n...

The Stopover by T L Swan Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

The Stopover by T L Swan Summary

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Jameson Miles and Emily Foster meet on a plane and find themselves instantly attracted to each other. They have such fantastic chemistry, so super charged, but both having fiery tempers they...

The Shadow Box by Luanne Rice Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

The Shadow Box by Luanne Rice Summary

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The Shadow Box by Luanne Rice Summary The storytelling of this novel is decent, but the writing is not great. The plot is that artist Claire is attacked and left for dead. Because her w...

These Tangled Vines by Julianne MacLean Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

These Tangled Vines by Julianne MacLean Summary

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These Tangled Vines by Julianne MacLean Summary Imagine visiting a vineyard in Tuscany where they hand you a glass of a yummy Italian red as soon as you step foot on the property. Readi...

Where the Lost Wander by Amy Harmon Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

Where the Lost Wander by Amy Harmon Summary

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Amy Harmon stretches her literary wings with another compelling historical romance that left a deep and profound impression on me. This time around we follow a cast of characters as they mak...

Gerta by Katerina Tuckova Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

Gerta by Katerina Tuckova Summary

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Gerta by Katerina Tuckova Summary Throughout the entire story, I couldn’t help but admire Gerta’s resilience. Starting with domestic trauma that would be enough to break anyon...

Make Me Yours by Melanie Harlow Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

Make Me Yours by Melanie Harlow Summary

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The plot line in one line: Cheyenne has fancied her hot cop neighbour Cole since she was a kid so when the single dad finally falls for her she’s over the moon, but Cole’s got some demon...

Water Memory by Daniel Pyne Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

Water Memory by Daniel Pyne Summary

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Water Memory by Daniel Pyne Summary In my opinion this was an excellent book. I raced through it wanting to know how Sentro was going to prevail. I found the language and writing style ...

The Venice Sketchbook by Rhys Bowen Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

The Venice Sketchbook by Rhys Bowen Summary

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The Venice Sketchbook by Rhys Bowen Summary The descriptions of Venice in both the 1928-44 and 2001 timelines are beautiful. Englishwoman Juliet Browning visits Venice with her aunt in ...

The Murmur of Bees by Sofia Segovia Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

The Murmur of Bees by Sofia Segovia Summary

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SS. has Penned A novel about an abandoned baby found under a bridge covered with bees. The child grows and as he does it becomes known to a close few that he was able to see the future. He w...

West with Giraffes by Lynda Rutledge Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

West with Giraffes by Lynda Rutledge Summary

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West with Giraffes by Lynda Rutledge Summary Told through the memory of an aged veteran, the story is set against the background of the Dust Bowl, the Depression and the advent of a Wor...

Wall of Silence by Tracy Buchanan Summary book summary, reviews and downlod

Wall of Silence by Tracy Buchanan Summary

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Wall of Silence opens with the inner thoughts of the person who has stabbed Patrick Byatt, the husband and father of the family. It is automatically clear that one of the three children is r...

Best Seller T L Swan Audio Books of May 2022

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