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Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal and varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220. It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlemen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature, particularly the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, and the Matter of Britain, informed by Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written in the 1130s, which popularized the legend of King Arthur and his knights of the Round Table. All of these were taken as historically accurate until the beginnings of modern scholarship in the 19th century. The code of chivalry that developed in medieval Europe had its roots in earlier centuries. It arose in the Carolingian Empire from the idealisation of the cavalryman—involving military bravery, individual training, and service to others—especially in Francia, among horse soldiers in Charlemagne's cavalry. The term "chivalry" derives from the Old French term chevalerie, which can be translated as "horse soldiery". Originally, the term referred only to horse-mounted men, from the French word for horse, cheval, but later it became associated with knightly ideals.Over time, its meaning in Europe has been refined to emphasize more general social and moral virtues. The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility. Terminology and definitions In origin, the term chivalry means "horsemanship", formed in Old French, in the 11th century, from chevalerie (horsemen, knights), itself from the Medieval Latin caballarii, the nominative plural form of the term caballārius. The French word chevalier originally meant "a man of aristocratic standing, and probably of noble ancestry, who is capable, if called upon, of equipping himself with a war horse and the arms of heavy cavalryman and who has been through certain rituals that make him what he is". Therefore, during the Middle Ages, the plural chevalerie (transformed in English into the word "chivalry") originally denoted the body of heavy cavalry upon formation in the field. In English, the term appears from 1292 (note that cavalry is from the Italian form of the same word).The meaning of the term evolved over time into a broader sense, because in the Middle Ages the meaning of chevalier changed from the original concrete military meaning "status or fee associated with a military follower owning a war horse" or "a group of mounted knights" to the ideal of the Christian warrior ethos propagated in the romance genre, which was becoming popular during the 12th century, and the ideal of courtly love propagated in the contemporary Minnesang and related genres.The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin (1138–1193) the ritual of Christian knighthood; the Libre del ordre de cavayleria, written by Ramon Llull (1232–1315), from Majorca, whose subject is knighthood; and the Livre de Chevalerie of Geoffroi de Charny (1300–1356), which examines the qualities of knighthood, emphasizing prowess. None of the authors of these three texts knew the other two texts, and the three combine to depict a general concept of chivalry which is not precisely in harmony with any of them. To different degrees and with different details, they speak of chivalry as a way of life in which the military, the nobility, and religion combine.The "code of chivalry" is thus a product of the Late Middle Ages, evolving after the end of the crusades partly from an idealization of the historical knights fighting in the Holy Land and from ideals of courtly love. 10 Commandments of Chivalry Gautier's Ten Commandments of chivalry, set out in 1891, are: Thou shall believe all that the Church teaches and thou shalt observe all its directions. Thou shall defend the Church. Thou shall respect all weaknesses, and shalt constitute thyself the defender of them. Thou shall love the country in which thou wast born. Thou shall not recoil before thine enemy. Thou shall make war against the infidel without cessation and without mercy. Thou shall perform scrupulously thy feudal duties, if they be not contrary to the laws of God. Thou shall never lie, and shalt remain faithful to thy pledged word. Thou shall be generous, and give largesse to everyone. Thou shall be everywhere and always the champion of the Right and the Good against Injustice and Evil.Catherine Hanley says, "His rather simplistic work is been superseded by more recent scholars." Literary chivalry and historical reality Fans of chivalry have assumed since the late medieval period that there was a time in the past when chivalry was a living institution, when men acted chivalrically, when chivalry was alive and not dead, the imitation of which period would much improve the present. This is the mad mission of Don Quixote, protagonist of the most chivalric novel of all time and inspirer of the chivalry of Sir Walter Scott and of the U.S. South: to restore the age of chivalry, and thereby improve his country. It is a version of the myth of the Golden Age. With the birth of modern historical and literary research, scholars have found that however far back in time "The Age of Chivalry" is searched for, it is always further in the past, even back to the Roman Empire. From Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi: We must not confound chivalry with the feudal system. The feudal system may be called the real life of the period of which we are treating, possessing its advantages and inconveniences, its virtues and its vices. Chivalry, on the contrary, is the ideal world, such as it existed in the imaginations of the romance writers. Its essential character is devotion to woman and to honour. Sismondi alludes to the fictitious Arthurian romances about the imaginary Court of King Arthur, which were usually taken as factual presentations of a historical age of chivalry. He continues: The more closely we look into history, the more clearly shall we perceive that the system of chivalry is an invention almost entirely poetical. It is impossible to distinguish the countries in which it is said to have prevailed. It is always represented as distant from us both in time and place, and whilst the contemporary historians give us a clear, detailed, and complete account of the vices of the court and the great, of the ferocity or corruption of the nobles, and of the servility of the people, we are astonished to find the poets, after a long lapse of time, adorning the very same ages with the most splendid fictions of grace, virtue, and loyalty. The romance.... Discover the W L Knightly popular books. Find the top 100 most popular W L Knightly books.

Best Seller W L Knightly Books of February 2021

Taurus book summary, reviews and downlod



Alan Lowe, the Zodiac's Taurus, didn't think life could get any worse than his wife leaving him over his gambling debts and owing thirty grand to a thug named Benny. But that was before the ...

Entwined Pair book summary, reviews and downlod

Entwined Pair


While Alex Moore is busy trying to set up his next move, an unexpected confession will turn things upside down.While Jack Wilde makes a move that could change everything he and C...

Exploding House book summary, reviews and downlod

Exploding House


After being swept to safety by Alex during the horrific murder of Ethan Spade and his parents, Fiona Wilde's mission to find her father's killer has come to a screeching halt. With what coul...

The Hangman Box Set book summary, reviews and downlod

The Hangman Box Set


3 Mystery books for your reading pleasure.Silent CrimeThis world is evil.My mother used to tell me that evil only comes to those who are loo...

Enticed book summary, reviews and downlod



With Cam and Shae just steps behind the killer, Cam makes the decision to involve the media hoping to get information on Leah. But when leads come in, they bring him a little more informatio...

Trapped book summary, reviews and downlod



With a newborn missing and his mother left for dead, Shaelyn Sawyer is more determined to find the Baby Thief than ever. But when Detective Cameron Murphy sides against the victim, sure

Killers Guide Box Set book summary, reviews and downlod

Killers Guide Box Set


Read the first book in each of WL Knightlys' thrilling series in this first time ever, Killer Guide Box Set!

Zodiac Killers book summary, reviews and downlod

Zodiac Killers


For the first time ever books 1, 2, and 3 from WL Knightly's Zodiac series in a Box Set. The Zodiac Killer #1 Detective Darek Blake thought the secrets ...

Capricorn book summary, reviews and downlod



Being a suspect in a murder case never happens at a good time, but for Capricorn, Tad Halston, a recovering addict and former male escort who is on the verge of reclaiming his place as an in...

Hidden Crime book summary, reviews and downlod

Hidden Crime


Now that Detective Jake Thomas knows the Hangman's true identity, he's on the path to wrapping up the case, but when a revelation about Jo's family makes waves between them, will they be abl...

Stroke Of Luck book summary, reviews and downlod

Stroke Of Luck


Just when Fiona Wilde gets her freedom, she learns its cost when Enzo Juarez demands to make a deal. With Alex on the backburner, and everyone else in her life untrusted, someone besides her...

The Zodiac Killer book summary, reviews and downlod

The Zodiac Killer


From USA Today Best Selling Authors Lexy Timms and Ali Parker come a new thriller pen name - WL KnightlyDetective Darek Blake thought the secrets of his past were long bur...

Effecting the End book summary, reviews and downlod

Effecting the End


As Special Agent Nate Hawthorn wraps up his investigation, Suede Harris takes matters into her own hands.Not convinced that her friend is the Capsule Killer, she'll dig deep to g...

Devious Crime book summary, reviews and downlod

Devious Crime


Now that the Hangman's list of potentials is dwindling to two names, Detective Jake Thomas realizes that his partner, Detective Jo Callaway is facing a conflict of interest that should take ...

Eternal Crime book summary, reviews and downlod

Eternal Crime


Detected Jake Thomas is on a mission to find Jo's brother before he can do any more damage. But with the Hangman on the same exact mission, he will stop at nothing to reach the ultimate goal...

Sagittarius book summary, reviews and downlod



The Zodiac killer is after the remaining members of the Zodiac Society, and no one is safe. With the case heating up, Detective Darek Blake, the Zodiac's Sagittarius, finds himself growing c...

Aquarius book summary, reviews and downlod



With the suspicious death of Tad Halston, Detective Darek Blake finds walking the line between NYPD detective and Zodiac member a more daunting task than ever. Hannah Halston, Ta...

Libra book summary, reviews and downlod



Sick of seeing the ugliness in the world, Lane Simon, the Zodiac's Libra, gave up a life of law to pursue his passion for food when he moved from New York City to New Orleans to open a resta...

Virgo book summary, reviews and downlod



Hot off the pages of a tabloid scandal with his ex-girlfriend, supermodel Sharron Steele, Ethan Cline, Nashville superstar and the Zodiac's Virgo, is shaking off rumors and upholding his com...

Aries book summary, reviews and downlod



Seth Stone, The Zodiac’s Aries, has always wanted to lead and his upcoming run for office could make that dream come true. But when a phone call from Bay Collins threatens to expose him, h...

Deceived book summary, reviews and downlod



After working the past five years as a private investigator, former law enforcement officer, Shae Sawyer gets the call that she's been waiting for.Her longtime acquaintance and e...

A Savage Presence book summary, reviews and downlod

A Savage Presence


Now that Connor Cohen is dead, Silas Cohen is free to live the life he wants. But there's still two men in the way.When Enzo Juarez tries to make a new deal with Fiona, her good ...

Snared book summary, reviews and downlod



As Leah loses her mind, putting Gemma's life in danger, she sets up her next victim. But when Gemma cries for help, it's a race against the clock until Leah runs with her again. Will help ar...

Guilty Crime book summary, reviews and downlod

Guilty Crime


With new victims in his sights, the Hangman will stop at nothing to get his revenge, even if it means dragging Detective Jake Thomas down with him.After making it personal, Jake ...

Royally Similar book summary, reviews and downlod

Royally Similar


Just when she thought finding a way out of Jack's clutches was the biggest problem in her life, Fiona Wilde's life has turned upside down. Not only has her father passed away, but it's been ...

Baited book summary, reviews and downlod



As new evidence on the Baby Thief emerges with the abandonment of a little girl, Shaelyn,Sawyer gets closer to finding the woman who stole her baby and her life.While the r...

Highest Ranking book summary, reviews and downlod

Highest Ranking


Fiona Wilde's past has a way of catching up to her, and when he stepbrother, and club owner, Jack, catches her with her father's bodyguard, she does everything she can to remain daddy's litt...

Concealing the Facts book summary, reviews and downlod

Concealing the Facts


After an embarrassing meeting with Sheriff Creekmore and his friends at Blueberry Hills, Suede escaped the party with more questions than answers. Will Ted help her find the truth, or did he...

Gemini book summary, reviews and downlod



After years of being beaten down and bullied as a child, game inventor Corey Farrow, the Zodiac’s Gemini, isn’t looking back. When his only option for survival is to kill Alan Lowe and t...

Pisces book summary, reviews and downlod



Finn Wheeler, Pisces of the Zodiacs, has waited years to be taken seriously as a filmmaker, but when his recent trip to New York is upset by someone who is killing off members of the club, h...

The Capsule Killer Box Set Books 1-3 book summary, reviews and downlod

The Capsule Killer Box Set Books 1-3


3 Mystery stories for your reading pleasure…Tracking the TreasuresLet the web unravel itself and try not to die in the process.After losin...

Harboring the Truth book summary, reviews and downlod

Harboring the Truth


Now that Special Agent Nate Hawthorn is busy determining if their latest case was murder or suicide, and is left dealing with the backlash of Connor Levine's release, Suede Harris finds info...

Planting the Clues book summary, reviews and downlod

Planting the Clues


Now that Special Agent Nate Hawthorn is on Riley's trail, Suede is more anxious to be his shadow if only to prove her friend's innocence. But when a new partner comes on the scene, will she ...

Mind Drives Matter book summary, reviews and downlod

Mind Drives Matter


Now that Professor Whit Filmore had returned home from his last case with his assistant Anna Upton, he hopes things will go back to normal. But with a serial rapist putting students and thei...

Silent Crime book summary, reviews and downlod

Silent Crime


This world is evil.My mother used to tell me that evil only comes to those who are looking for it, and maybe she was right.Corruption and death walk hand and hand in this ...

Zodiac Killers Books 1-3 book summary, reviews and downlod

Zodiac Killers Books 1-3


For the first time ever books 1, 2, and 3 from WL Knightly's Zodiac series in a Box Set.The Zodiac Killer #1Detective Darek Blake thought the secrets of...

Cancer book summary, reviews and downlod



The recent shooting in New Orleans has turned the Zodiacs' latest agreement upside down, and Justin Finch, their Cancer, finds himself far from home with a bullet hole in his side and no ans...

Tracking the Treasures book summary, reviews and downlod

Tracking the Treasures


Let the web unravel itself and try not to die in the process. After losing her mother in a freak accident, Suede Harris is trying to pick up the pieces and move on wi...

Sinful Crime book summary, reviews and downlod

Sinful Crime


Just when retired detective Jake Thomas and his ex-partner, Jo Calloway thought they had things figure out, there's a new killer in town. But this one wants the Hangman to take all the ...

Unearth the Evidence book summary, reviews and downlod

Unearth the Evidence


With the investigation into Kara Lockland's death causing a stir, Suede Harris has a hunch that everything happening in Summer Grove is connected.After requesting to shadow Speci...

Dead On Time book summary, reviews and downlod

Dead On Time


Professor Whit Filmore thought he'd left his life as a detective behind to focus on teaching, but after a personal realization changed his life, he discovered his heightened senses help him ...

Leo book summary, reviews and downlod



Carter Hamilton, the Zodiac's Leo and king of his San Diego-based mega church, is used to being adored and followed by millions. When the church elders' financial decisions begin to dent his...

Scorpio book summary, reviews and downlod



As founder of the Zodiac Society, Bay Collins likes to be in control of every situation. Now that the killer has kidnapped Mia, nothing will stop Bay from finding her and getting his revenge...

Truth Conquers All book summary, reviews and downlod

Truth Conquers All


Just when Whit Filmore thinks Anna's mother has done her worst by getting him suspended from his job at the university, she convinces Anna to move back home.When Anna's close pro...

Best Seller W L Knightly Audio Books of February 2021

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