Anna Castle Biography & Facts
Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Polish: Bar; Russian: Бар) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. The town's estimated population is 15,775 (2020 est.)
Bar began as a small trade outpost known as Rov, within the Duchy of Podolia in the 13th century. Rov was noted for the first time in 1401. In 1537, the Polish Queen Bona Sforza renamed the settlement Bar, after her hometown of Bari, Italy. Bar's highest mountain was renamed after Queen Sforza in 2018 to commemorate her role in naming the town. In 1540, King Sigismund I the Old of Poland granted the nearby town city rights.In the 1630s, Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan built a fortress in Bar and made note of the town his book Description d'Ukranie. The Bar fortress was besieged several times in its history. In 1648, during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, was captured by Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and was severely damaged.In 1672, Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the sanjak in Podolia Eyalet with nahiyas of Bar, Dırajna, Zinkuv and Popovçi. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were liberated by John III of Poland after a four-day siege. However, the Ottomans would then recapture the city in 1675 and hold it until 1686, with nominal control through 1699.
On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation, an alliance of Polish nobles, was founded by Adam Krasiński, Bishop of Kamenets, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, Casimir Pulaski, Moritz Benyowszki and Michał Krasiński within the Bar fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town was ceded to the Russian Empire and made part of the Podolia Governorate.
After 1922, Bar became part of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic within the USSR. In 1991, following the fall of the Soviet Union, the town became part of the independent Ukraine.The town had a historical Jewish population, with 3,869 Jews within the city in 1939. On July 16, 1941, during World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the town and established ghettos, killing many of Bar's Jewish residents. In 1999, there was an estimated Jewish population of 199.Bar currently has two large memorials situated within the city center, which are dedicated to those killed during WWII.
City historic museum
Bar has a museum which documents the city's history. The museum includes an exhibits on topics such as Queen Bona Sforza, Ukrainian culture, and the WWII era. It attracts both domestic and foreign visitors. The museum's collection includes historical clothing, ceramics, coins, and other artifacts.
Bar Fortress historic site
The town has a historic site centered around the Bar Fortress, originally built in 1537 and later re-designed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan. The fortress currently stands in ruins. The fortress was built on the Riv River, and the historic site is now surrounded by historic religious buildings, including cathedrals. The site also includes trails surrounded by trees.
Reconstruction of the fortress was proposed at the 3rd International Scientific Conference, Bar's Land, Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives, in Bar in 2014.
Per the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a humid continental climate. Bar's district was historically used to grow apples.Winters in Bar are relatively cold, with snow. The early spring is generally warm, while the summer is sunny and humid. Autumn in Bar is generally characterized by clouds and rain, with precipitation being caused by Atlantic hurricanes.
The town has instituted several programs to combat climate change, including the introduction of a waste management program, the optimization of public transportation, the minimization of air pollution by industrial plants, the thermal isolation of buildings, encouragement of bicycle transportation, and support of renewable energy initiatives.
The city spans around 1,387 hectares (3,430 acres). The Bar district area is around 1,102 square kilometres (425 square miles). The maximum altitude above sea level is 368.8 metres (1,210 feet).The central part of the city has a number of the historical cathedrals and the modern architecture buildings. There is a central square with a fountain, which is surrounded by the history museum, cinema, culture palace, trade center, modern hotel, city library, employment center building and some other governmental buildings in the downtown.
There is a sport stadium for football, basketball, volleyball in the center of the city. There is a swimming pool building not far away from the stadium. The local football team plays the football games at the stadium regularly. The pop music performances by various artists from Ukraine take place at the stadium from time to time.
The main educational institutions, including the Humanitarian-Pedagogical College and the Automobiles and Roads College are situated in close proximity to the downtown. Also, there are many secondary schools in the central district in the city.
The modern big residential apartments buildings, made of the red and white bricks, can be found around the city.
The Bar city library, which is located in a modern architecture building, has a digital library with Internet access.
Bar is known as a little piece of Italy in Ukraine
The Bar city's total population was around 3,341 in 1850, increasing to 16,442 by 2013 approximately.The historical population is accurately characterized in the following chart:
The percentage of people, who know how to speak, read, write the Ukrainian language in Bar is (95.5%). In real life, the local population (100.0%) primarily speaks Ukrainian (70.6%), Russian (20.0%), Polish (9.0%), Italian (0.1%), Hebrew (0.1%), German (0.1%) and English (0.1%).
Originally, the entire population spoke the old Slavic languages mainly, however the various historical events and the increasing international trade led to the situation, when the local population was able to get the other foreign languages skills.
Ukrainian and Russian are studied as the first languages and German and English as second languages by the local young people at the secondary schools in Bar.English is also studied at the advanced level at English Language Faculty at Humanitarian – Pedagogical College in Bar.
A big collection of the American books, textbooks, dictionaries and various magazines was donated to the central city library by Dr. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA a few years ago. In addition, the numerous computers with the audio-headsets were installed and connected to the Internet at the central city library due to both the personal efforts of Hankamp and the Bibliomist program. Therefore, it is possible to learn English at the central city library.
Government and politics
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