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In optics, chromatic aberration (CA), also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism, is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same point. It is caused by dispersion: the refractive index of the lens elements varies with the wavelength of light. The refractive index of most transparent materials decreases with increasing wavelength. Since the focal length of a lens depends on the refractive index, this variation in refractive index affects focusing. Chromatic aberration manifests itself as "fringes" of color along boundaries that separate dark and bright parts of the image. Types There are two types of chromatic aberration: axial (longitudinal), and transverse (lateral). Axial aberration occurs when different wavelengths of light are focused at different distances from the lens (focus shift). Longitudinal aberration is typical at long focal lengths. Transverse aberration occurs when different wavelengths are focused at different positions in the focal plane, because the magnification and/or distortion of the lens also varies with wavelength. Transverse aberration is typical at short focal lengths. The ambiguous acronym LCA is sometimes used for either longitudinal or lateral chromatic aberration.The two types of chromatic aberration have different characteristics, and may occur together. Axial CA occurs throughout the image and is specified by optical engineers, optometrists, and vision scientists in diopters. It can be reduced by stopping down, which increases depth of field so that though the different wavelengths focus at different distances, they are still in acceptable focus. Transverse CA does not occur in the center of the image and increases towards the edge. It is not affected by stopping down. In digital sensors, axial CA results in the red and blue planes being defocused (assuming that the green plane is in focus), which is relatively difficult to remedy in post-processing, while transverse CA results in the red, green, and blue planes being at different magnifications (magnification changing along radii, as in geometric distortion), and can be corrected by radially scaling the planes appropriately so they line up. Minimization In the earliest uses of lenses, chromatic aberration was reduced by increasing the focal length of the lens where possible. For example, this could result in extremely long telescopes such as the very long aerial telescopes of the 17th century. Isaac Newton's theories about white light being composed of a spectrum of colors led him to the conclusion that uneven refraction of light caused chromatic aberration (leading him to build the first reflecting telescope, his Newtonian telescope, in 1668.) Modern telescopes, as well as other catoptric and catadioptric systems, continue to use mirrors, which have no chromatic aberration. There exists a point called the circle of least confusion, where chromatic aberration can be minimized. It can be further minimized by using an achromatic lens or achromat, in which materials with differing dispersion are assembled together to form a compound lens. The most common type is an achromatic doublet, with elements made of crown and flint glass. This reduces the amount of chromatic aberration over a certain range of wavelengths, though it does not produce perfect correction. By combining more than two lenses of different composition, the degree of correction can be further increased, as seen in an apochromatic lens or apochromat. Note that "achromat" and "apochromat" refer to the type of correction (2 or 3 wavelengths correctly focused), not the degree (how defocused the other wavelengths are), and an achromat made with sufficiently low dispersion glass can yield significantly better correction than an achromat made with more conventional glass. Similarly, the benefit of apochromats is not simply that they focus three wavelengths sharply, but that their error on other wavelengths is also quite small.Many types of glass have been developed to reduce chromatic aberration. These are low dispersion glass, most notably, glasses containing fluorite. These hybridized glasses have a very low level of optical dispersion; only two compiled lenses made of these substances can yield a high level of correction.The use of achromats was an important step in the development of optical microscopes and telescopes. An alternative to achromatic doublets is the use of diffractive optical elements. Diffractive optical elements are able to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a sample of optical material which is essentially flat. Diffractive optical elements have negative dispersion characteristics, complementary to the positive Abbe numbers of optical glasses and plastics. Specifically, in the visible part of the spectrum diffractives have a negative Abbe number of −3.5. Diffractive optical elements can be fabricated using diamond turning techniques. Mathematics of chromatic aberration minimization For a doublet consisting of two thin lenses in contact, the Abbe number of the lens materials is used to calculate the correct focal length of the lenses to ensure correction of chromatic aberration. If the focal lengths of the two lenses for light at the yellow Fraunhofer D-line (589.2 nm) are f1 and f2, then best correction occurs for the condition: f 1 ⋅ V 1 + f 2 ⋅ V 2 = 0 {\displaystyle f_{1}\cdot V_{1}+f_{2}\cdot V_{2}=0} where V1 and V2 are the Abbe numbers of the materials of the first and second lenses, respectively. Since Abbe numbers are positive, one of the focal lengths must be negative, i.e., a diverging lens, for the condition to be met. The overall focal length of the doublet f is given by the standard formula for thin lenses in contact: 1 f = 1 f 1 + 1 f 2 {\displaystyle {\frac {1}{f}}={\frac {1}{f_{1}}}+{\frac {1}{f_{2}}}} and the above condition ensures this will be the focal length of the doublet for light at the blue and red Fraunhofer F and C lines (486.1 nm and 656.3 nm respectively). The focal length for light at other visible wavelengths will be similar but not exactly equal to this. Chromatic aberration is used during a duochrome eye test to ensure that a correct lens power has been selected. The patient is confronted with red and green images and asked which i.... Discover the Chromatic popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Chromatic books.

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Why did we let the machines assimilate our musical culture?In a world where machines create most music, Alice Parsons is fed up, but what can she do? When she loses the on...

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What will the world look like in 30 years?After a massive trade war, the United States lies in financial ruin. Fewer than twenty states remain. New power structures are fo...

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Chromatic

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Would risk your freedom to save another?When Alice lands a new job as a talent agent that caters to all-human Rock & Roll bands, her world is turned upside down when a...

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Why did we let the machines assimilate our musical culture? In a world where machines create most music, Alice Parsons is fed up, but what can she do? When she loses the onl...

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What would happen if technology failed?Alone and hurt, Alice is trying to pick up the pieces after the world crumbles around her. New York is just emerging from a devastat...

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What if the lines between the real-world and the virtual were blurred?The online world of the Colossal Machine has always been an escape for Nigel and his friends. After m...

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Personal AIs are great… unless they are spying on youLocked out of her bank accounts and kicked out of her apartment Alice doesn't think that her life could get any wors...

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Ensemble

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Operating an all-human club is great… unless it is outlawed.After the AI Copyright Act is repealed, megacorporations such as MuseFam increase the production of AI-genera...

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Reckoning of Delta Prime MP3 Audiobook

Reckoning of Delta Prime

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Writing code is fun… until it makes you a target.Soon after his high school graduation, Nigel Watson opens his cybersecurity investigative business. Trade is lucrative until he...

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Mark of the Triad: Cyber Hunter Chronicles, Book 1 (Unabridged)

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Playing a virtual game is fun…until the game wants you dead.Nigel Watson is a clever teenage hacker who uses his skills to make extra spending money. But, after someone plunder...

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My Dear Alice: A Dark Awakening (Cyber Overture) (Unabridged)

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When Alice Parsons goes missing on the way to her new job in Nashville. Her best friend hires Jamie Henderson, Alice’s ex-boyfriend, to track her down across a hostile post-apocalyptic was...

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Go behind the scenes for the inspiration and development of the Cyber Teen Project.Contains deleted scenes, character profiles, games, and unreleased content.Div...

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Cyber Overture Series Box Set

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Why did we let the machines assimilate our musical culture? In a world where machines create most music, Alice Parsons is fed up, but what can she do? When she loses the onl...

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 Endless adventure awaits in Interstellar Online! Try out new sensory bodysuits to feel what your character feels!CAUTION: Malware included.Cassidy...

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She must unlock the secrets of her past life—before her future is written for her.When cyborg Treeka wakes from an interrupted cryogenic sleep in a genetics lab, she does so in...

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Resonance: A Cyberpunk Experience of Reclaiming Human Culture from the Machines

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Personal AIs are great… unless they are spying on youLocked out of her bank accounts and kicked out of her apartment Alice doesn’t think that her life could get any worse. Un...

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Sonorous: A Cyberpunk Journey into the Fight for Musical Identity

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Why did we let the machines assimilate our musical culture?In a world where machines create most music, Alice Parsons is fed up, but what can she do? When she loses the only job ...

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Would risk your freedom to save another?When Alice lands a new job as a talent agent that caters to all-human Rock & Roll bands, her world is turned upside down when a myster...

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Personal AIs are great...unless they are spying on you.Locked out of her bank accounts and kicked out of her apartment, Alice doesn’t think that her life could get any w...

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He’ll cross a lethal land to bring her back home. But is she willing to be found?Appalachian Wasteland, 2072. Jamie Henderson wants to forget all about his ex-girlfriend Alice....

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Ensemble: Cyber Overture (Unabridged)

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She knows her humanity is more than skin-deep. Now, she has to prove it - and risk losing everything.Betrayed, injured, and alone in an unfamiliar city, newly awakened cyb...

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Solving cryptographic puzzles is fun...unless the puzzle is designed to kill you.Nigel Watson is a clever teenage hacker who narrowly escaped with his life in White Hat Blac...

Mark of the Triad MP3 Audiobook

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What will the world look like in 30 years?After a massive trade war, the United States lies in financial ruin. Fewer than twenty states remain. New power structures are formed; m...

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She knows her humanity is more than skin-deep. Now she has to prove it—and risk losing everything.Betrayed, injured, and alone in an unfamiliar city, newly awakened cyborg Tree...

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Cassidy's Fleet: Interstellar Online, Book 2 (Unabridged)

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They ripped her binary-code baby out of her hands. Now, she’s the only one who can protect them all from its fatal flaw.Cassidy Delgado's anger burns with the fire of a ...

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A criminal conspiracy programmed from ones and zeroes. Can a keyboard warrior stop her world from going south IRL?If Cassidy Delgado’s latest MMO flops, then so will her career...

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Sonorous: Cyber Overture, Book 1 (Unabridged)

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Why did we let the machines assimilate our musical culture? In a world where machines create most music, Alice Parsons is fed up, but what can she do? When she loses ...

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