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J R R Tolkien Biography & Facts

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (; 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and academic, best known as the author of the high fantasy works The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford from 1925 to 1945 and the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford from 1945 to 1959. He was a close friend of C. S. Lewis, a co-member of the informal literary discussion group The Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, poems, fictional histories, invented languages, and literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and, within it, Middle-earth. Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more precisely, of high fantasy. Biography Ancestry Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks, watches and pianos in London and Birmingham. The Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, which was founded during medieval German eastward expansion, where his earliest-known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien (1663–1746) was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg. His son Christian Tolkien (1706–1791) moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, and his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien (1747–1813) and Johann (later known as John) Benjamin Tolkien (1752–1819) emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family; the younger brother was J. R. R. Tolkien's second great-grandfather. In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from then on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin apparently never became a British citizen. Other German relatives also joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of people who evacuated East Prussia in 1945, at the end of World War II.According to Ryszard Derdziński, the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and probably means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", and jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the literally translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father". Childhood John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (later annexed by the British Empire; now Free State Province in the Republic of South Africa), to Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857–1896), an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel, née Suffield (1870–1904). The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, who was born on 17 February 1894.As a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think later echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning.When he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them. This left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham. Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole (now in Hall Green), then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent, Lickey and Malvern Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester, and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early.Tolkien could read by the age of four and could write fluently soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing". He liked stories about "Red Indians" (Native Americans) and the fantasy works by George MacDonald. In addition, the "Fairy Books" of Andrew Lang were particularly important to him and their influence is apparent in some of his later writings. Mabel Tolkien was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1900 despite vehement protests by her Baptist family, which stopped all financial assistance to her. In 1904, when J. R. R. Tolkien was 12, his mother died of acute diabetes at Fern Cottage in Rednal, which she was renting. She was then about 34 years of age, about as old as a person with diabetes mellitus type 1 could survive without treatment—insulin would not be discovered until two decades later. Nine years after her death, Tolkien wrote, "My own dear mother was a martyr indeed, and it is not to everybody that God grants so easy a way to his great gifts as he did to Hilary and myself, giving us a mother who killed herself with labour and trouble to ensure us keeping the faith."Before her death, Mabel Tolkien had assigned the guardianship of her sons to her close friend, Father Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, who was.... Discover the J R R Tolkien popular books. Find the top 100 most popular J R R Tolkien books.

Best Seller J R R Tolkien Books of October 2021

W. H. Auden book summary, reviews and downlod

W. H. Auden

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W. H. Auden disapproved of literary biography. Or did he? The truth is far more equivocal than at first seems apparent. There is no denying he delivered himself of such unambiguous pronounce...

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Mr Majeika and the Dinner Lady

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Mr Majeika is the most magical teacher around!'Sometimes, ' whispered Jody. 'I think school dinners would be all right if it wasn't for her.'Mrs Chipchase, the...

The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien book summary, reviews and downlod

The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien

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This collection will entertain all who appreciate the art of masterful letter writing. The Letters of J.R.R Tolkien sheds much light on Tolkien's creative genius and grand design for ...

Mr Majeika and the School Caretaker book summary, reviews and downlod

Mr Majeika and the School Caretaker

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When old Mr Jenks retires, St Barty's School advertises for a new caretaker. Unfortunately there's only one applicant - Hamish Bigmore's Uncle Wilf who is just as rude and bad-tempered as Ha...

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Mr Majeika on the Internet

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Class Three has got a new computer and while exploring it, Mr Majeika manages to get the whole class trapped in the school website. Many adventures follow and Class Three meet bizarre charac...

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Mr Majeika and the School Play

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'I really am quite useless as a wizard.'But Class Three thinks Mr Majeika is an excellent wizard, particularly when his spells go wrong! First Hamish Bigmore ends up on TV...

J.R.R. Tolkien book summary, reviews and downlod

J.R.R. Tolkien

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The authorized biography of the creator of Middle-earth. In the decades since his death in September 1973, millions have read THE HOBBIT, THE LORD OF THE RINGS, and THE SILMARILLION and beco...

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Mr Majeika and the Lost Spell Book

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A super magical story featuring Mr Majeika, the popular wizard turned teacher!Fun and magic combine as usual in this new Mr Majeika story. The pupils in Class 3 at St Barty's Sch...

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Mr Majeika Vanishes

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Class 3 are sure that something is very wrong when Mr Majeika leaves school without saying goodbye. When they find a message from him saying he's been arrested by the Silly Crime Squad, they...

The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien book summary, reviews and downlod

The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien

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A comprehensive collection of letters spanning the adult life (1914-1973) of one of the world’s most famous storytellers.‘It is not possible even at great length to "pot" The...

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Mr Majeika and the Ghost Train

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Mr Majeika is the most magical teacher around!'Do be careful, Mr Majeika, there might be real ghosts in there.'When Class Three and Mr Majeika get on board a g...

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Mr Majeika and the School Trip

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More amazing adventures with Mr Majeika, the ex-wizard, turned teacher, and his class at St Barty's School. This time there's a trip down a magic river, a battle to save St Barty's from the ...

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Mr Majeika and the School Inspector

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'Use of magic by teacher strictly forbidden.'Poor Mr Majeika goes to the bottom of the class when the school inspector comes to call. Things don't get any easier when Mr M...

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Mr Majeika and the School Book Week

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'Oh dear,' said Mr Majeika, 'I seem to have made the spell too strong.'Class Three has fun during Book Week, when famous storybook characters suddenly appear! But there's ...

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Mr Majeika and the Music Teacher

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'Music teacher? What music teacher?'The sudden arrival of a new music teacher throws St barty's School into confusion. Mysterious smells start coming from the staffroom an...

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Mr Majeika and the Haunted Hotel

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Mr Majeika is the most magical teacher around!Oh, don't be cowards,' said Jody. 'I'm sure it's perfectly safe.'Mysteriously stranded in the fog at night. Mr Ma...

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Mr Majeika Joins the Circus

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When Class Three and Mr Majeika go to the circus, it's definitely not as fun as they imagined. Everyone's a bit old, creaky and rubbish really! So when Mr Majeika casts a small spell to help...

Best Seller J R R Tolkien Audio Books of October 2021

Great Leaders' Lives MP3 Audiobook

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Household names nominate leaders from the past for BBC Radio 4's Great LivesSince its inception in 2001, Great Lives has been one of Radio 4's most popular program...

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Well-known personalities pick their favourite entertainers for BBC Radio 4's Great LivesOne of the BBC's most acclaimed programmes, Great Lives has been a re...

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Famous fans choose their favourite writers for BBC Radio 4's Great LivesFor 20 years, Great Lives has been a cornerstone of the Radio 4 schedules, presented ...

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Distinguished guests nominate a great musician for BBC Radio 4's Great LivesFor 20 years, Great Lives has been a linchpin of Radio 4, presented by Joan Bakew...

The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, and Their Friends MP3 Audiobook

The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, and Their Friends

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During the 1930s at Oxford, C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, and Charles Williams-remarkable friends, writers, and scholars-met regularly to discuss philosophy and literature and to read aloud...

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