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The Svalbard Global Seed Vault (Norwegian: Svalbard globale frøhvelv) is a secure seed bank on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago. Conservationist Cary Fowler, in association with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), started the vault to preserve a wide variety of plant seeds that are duplicate samples, or "spare" copies, of seeds held in gene banks worldwide. The seed vault is an attempt to ensure against the loss of seeds in other genebanks during large-scale regional or global crises. The seed vault is managed under terms spelled out in a tripartite agreement among the Norwegian government, the Crop Trust, and the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen).The Norwegian government entirely funded the vault's approximately 45 million kr (US$8.8 million in 2008) construction. Storing seeds in the vault is free to end users; Norway and the Crop Trust pay for operational costs. Primary funding for the Trust comes from organisations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and from various governments worldwide. History The Nordic Gene Bank has, since 1984, stored backup Nordic plant germplasm via frozen seeds in an abandoned coal mine at Svalbard. In January 2008, the Nordic Gene Bank merged with two other Nordic conservation groups to form NordGen. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault officially opened on 26 February 2008, although the first seeds arrived in January 2008. Five percent of the seeds in the vault, about 18,000 samples with 500 seeds each, came from the Centre for Genetic Resources of the Netherlands (CGN), part of Wageningen University, Netherlands.As part of the vault's first anniversary, more than 90,000 food crop seed samples were placed into storage, bringing the total number of seed samples to 400,000. Among the new seeds are included 32 varieties of potatoes from Ireland's national gene banks and 20,000 new samples from the U.S. Agricultural Research Service. Other seed samples came from Canada and Switzerland, as well as international seed researchers from Colombia, Mexico and Syria. This 4-tonne (3.9-long-ton; 4.4-short-ton) shipment brought the total number of seeds stored in the vault to over 20 million. As of this anniversary, the vault contained samples from approximately one-third of the world's most important food crop varieties. Also part of the anniversary, experts on food production and climate change met for a three-day conference in Longyearbyen.Japanese sculptor Mitsuaki Tanabe (田辺光彰) presented a work to the vault named "The Seed 2009 / Momi In-Situ Conservation". In 2010, a delegation of seven U.S. congressmen handed over a number of different varieties of chili pepper.By 2013, approximately one-third of the genera diversity stored in gene banks globally was represented at the Seed Vault.In October 2016, the seed vault experienced an unusually large degree of water intrusion due to higher than average temperatures and heavy rainfall. While it is common for some water to seep into the vault's 100-metre (328 ft) entrance tunnel during the warmer spring months, in this case the water encroached 15 metres (49 ft) into the tunnel before freezing. The vault was designed for water intrusion and as such the seeds were not at risk. As a result, however, Norwegian public works agency Statsbygg plans to make improvements to the tunnel to prevent any such intrusion in the future, including waterproofing the tunnel walls, removing heat sources from the tunnel, and digging exterior drainage ditches.For the seed vault's 10th anniversary on 26 February 2018, a shipment of 70,000 samples was delivered to the facility, bringing the number of samples received to more than one million (not counting withdrawals). At this time, the total number of samples held at the vault was 1,081,026 distinct crop varieties, representing over 13,000 years of agricultural history.In 2019, the seed vault cost about 2.4 million kr (US$282,000) to maintain. Construction Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland's prime ministers ceremonially laid "the first stone" on 19 June 2006.The seedbank is 120 metres (390 ft) inside a sandstone mountain on Spitsbergen Island, and employs robust security systems. Seeds are packaged in special three-ply foil packets and heat sealed to exclude moisture. The facility is managed by the Nordic Genetic Resource Center, though there are no permanent staff on-site. Spitsbergen was considered ideal because it lacked tectonic activity and had permafrost, which aids preservation. It being 130 metres (430 ft) above sea level will keep the site dry even if the ice caps melt. Locally mined coal provides power for refrigeration units that further cool the seeds to the internationally recommended standard of −18 °C (−0.4 °F). If the equipment fails, at least several weeks will elapse before the facility rises to the surrounding sandstone bedrock's temperature of −3 °C (27 °F), and is estimated to take two centuries to warm to 0 °C (32 °F).A feasibility study prior to construction determined that the vault could preserve most major food crops' seeds for hundreds of years. Some, including those of important grains, could potentially remain viable for thousands of years.Running the length of the facility's roof and down the front face to the entryway is an illuminated artwork named Perpetual Repercussion by Norwegian artist Dyveke Sanne that marks the location of the vault from a distance. In Norway, government-funded construction projects exceeding a certain cost must include artwork. KORO, the Norwegian State agency overseeing art in public spaces, engaged the artist to propose an artwork for the Seed Vault. The roof and vault entrance are filled with highly reflective stainless steel, mirrors, and prisms. The installation reflects polar light in the summer months, while in the winter, a network of 200 fibre-optic cables gives the piece a muted greenish-turquoise and white light. Mission The Svalbard Global Seed Vault's mission is to provide a safety net against accidental loss of diversity in traditional genebanks. While the popular press has emphasized its possible utility in the event of a major regional or global catastrophe, it will be more frequently accessed when genebanks lose samples due to mismanagement, accident, equipment failures, funding cuts, and natural disasters. These events occur with some regularity. War and civil strife have a history of destroying some genebanks. The national seed bank of the Philippines was damaged by flooding and later destroyed by a fire; the seed banks of Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq have been lost completely. According to The Economist, "the Svalbard vault is a backup for the world's 1,750 seed banks, storehouses of agricultural biodiversity." Norwegian law has prohibited the storing of genetically modified seeds at the vault.The adjacent Arctic World Archive provides a similar service for dat.... Discover the Linda Seed popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Linda Seed books.

Best Seller Linda Seed Books of April 2021

The Icing on the Cake book summary, reviews and downlod

The Icing on the Cake

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She’s a baker without a kitchen. He’s got a double oven to spare. It’s a recipe for success, until his mother starts stirring up trouble …Cassie Jordan has a sweet dream ...

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Loving Benny

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Benny’s involved with the wrong man. Ike is sure he can change that, if only he can get out of the friend zone …Benedetta Russo’s had a run of bad luck in love, in her care...

The Delaneys of Cambria: The Four-Book Boxed Set book summary, reviews and downlod

The Delaneys of Cambria: The Four-Book Boxed Set

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Now, read Linda Seed's Delaneys of Cambria series in one place, for one price.A Long, Cool Rain:Colin Delaney’s wealthy family has been a Central Coast fixture for ...

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Nearly Wild

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She’s finished with men. He’s made it his mission to change her mind.Rose Watkins has never been afraid of anything. She wasn’t afraid to leave home and cross the country o...

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First Crush

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He broke her heart back in high school. Now, eighteen years later, he’s the only one who can heal it …Bianca Russo is happy enough practicing pediatric medicine, sharing a ho...

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The Promise of Lightning

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Megan Scott’s relationship with California rancher Liam Delaney started off well, but lately it’s been going too far too fast—and it’s beginning to feel like a trap she doesn’t kno...

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Then, Now, and Always

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She’s known him since kindergarten, and she’s loved him almost that long. Now that he’s her boss, it’s her last hope that he might finally notice her …Candace Weaver kn...

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A Long, Cool Rain

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He’s uncovered a long-held family secret. She’s shocked to learn the truth—and to find herself caught between love and loyalty …Colin Delaney’s wealthy family has been ...

Main Street Merchants Complete Series book summary, reviews and downlod

Main Street Merchants Complete Series

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Enjoy the complete Main Street Merchants Series by Linda Seed with four full-length novels.Moonstone Beach:She's a divorcee who's still struggling to recover. He's no...

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Love and Joy

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She’s jumping into a drastic change of lifestyle. He’s determined to help her see everything she’s been missing …Joy Maxwell has a life people envy. An upscale Los Angele...

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Fire and Glass

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She’s engaged to a man with a promising future. But even as she makes plans to say “I do,” another man is hoping that she won’t….It wasn't easy for Lacy Jordan to watch...

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Like That Endless Cambria Sky

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A ruined reputation. A second chance. A conflict between love and ambition.Genevieve Porter was forced to flee the art world of Manhattan after she blew the whistle on the shady ...

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Fixer-Upper

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She’s an up-and-coming interior designer with a multimillionaire client. If only she could make him see that it’s his life—not his house—that needs a remodel …Martina R...

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Searching for Sunshine

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She hires a contractor to fix up her house, then realizes it’s her life that needs a renovation …Breanna Delaney is a devoted mother, a loyal sister, and a grieving widow who...

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The Russo Sisters: The Complete Four-Book Set

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Read the complete four-book Russo Sisters series in one place, for one price.Saving Sofia:Sofia Russo thinks the cute guy in the life vest is just another tourist tak...

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Moonstone Beach

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She’s a divorcee who’s still struggling to recover. He’s notorious for his reckless ways with women. What could possibly go wrong?Kate Bennet owns a small bookstore in the ...

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Loving the Storm

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He’s suffered a series of painful losses, and he’s got the scars to prove it. She’s got her own wounds, ones she doesn’t want him to see …Rancher Liam Delaney’s still...

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Christmas in Cambria

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She’s struggling to rebuild her life. He’s desperately searching for connection—he just doesn’t know it yet …Delilah Ballard’s husband left her and their two kids for...

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Saving Sofia

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He’d give his life to meet her. He just didn’t think it would actually come to that …Sofia Russo thinks the cute guy in the life vest is just another tourist taking one of ...

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Fire and Glass: Main Street Merchants, Volume 4 (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Fire and Glass: Main Street Merchants, Volume 4 (Unabridged)

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She's engaged to a man with a promising future. But even as she makes plans to say "l do", another man is hoping that she won't....It wasn't easy for Lacy Jordan to watch her bes...

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The Promise of Lightning: The Delaneys of Cambria, Book 2 (Unabridged)

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Megan Scott’s relationship with California rancher Liam Delaney started off well, but lately it’s been going too far too fast - and it’s beginning to feel like a trap she doesn’t kno...

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Like That Endless Cambria Sky: Main Street Merchants, Book 2 (Unabridged)

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A ruined reputation. A second chance. A conflict between love and ambition.... Genevieve Porter was forced to flee the art world of Manhattan after she blew the whistle on the sh...

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Loving the Storm

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He's been hit by a series of painful losses, and he's got the scars to prove it. She's got her own wounds, ones she doesn't want him to see ...Rancher Liam Delaney's still suffer...

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Loving the Storm: The Delaneys of Cambria, Book 3 (Unabridged)

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He's been hit by a series of painful losses, and he's got the scars to prove it. She's got her own wounds, ones she doesn't want him to see...Rancher Liam Delaney's still sufferi...

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A Long, Cool Rain: The Delaneys of Cambria, Book 1 (Unabridged)

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He’s uncovered a long-held family secret. She’s shocked to learn the truth - and to find out she’s caught in the middle between love and loyalty....Colin Delaney’s wealth...

Icing on the Cake MP3 Audiobook

Icing on the Cake

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She’s a baker without a kitchen. He’s got a double oven to spare. It’s a recipe for success, until his mother starts stirring up trouble ...Cassie Jordan has a sweet dream ...

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Moonstone Beach: Main Street Merchants, Book 1 (Unabridged)

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She's a divorcee who's still struggling to recover. He's notorious for his reckless ways with women. What could possibly go wrong? Kate Bennet owns a small bookstore in the breat...

The Promise of Lightning MP3 Audiobook

The Promise of Lightning

Romance$12.99

Megan Scott’s relationship with California rancher Liam Delaney started off well, but lately it’s been going too far too fast—and it’s beginning to feel like a trap she doesn’t kno...

Nearly Wild: Main Street Merchants, Book 3 (Unabridged) MP3 Audiobook

Nearly Wild: Main Street Merchants, Book 3 (Unabridged)

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She's finished with men. He's made it his mission to change her mind.Rose Watkins has never been afraid of anything. She wasn't afraid to leave home and cross the country ...

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The Icing on the Cake: Otter Bluff (Unabridged)

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She’s a baker without a kitchen. He’s got a double oven to spare. It’s a recipe for success, until his mother starts stirring up trouble....Cassie Jordan has a sweet dream ...

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