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The West Bank (Arabic: الضفة الغربية‎ aḍ-Ḍiffah al-Ġarbiyyah; Hebrew: הגדה המערבית‎ HaGadah HaMa'aravit or יהודה ושומרון‎ Yehuda VeShomron) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel to the south, west and north. Under Israeli occupation since 1967, the area is split into 167 Palestinian "islands" under partial Palestinian National Authority civil rule, and 230 Israeli settlements into which Israeli law is "pipelined". The "West Bank" name was given to the territory after it was captured by Jordan in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War because it sits on the west side of the Jordan River. Jordan subsequently annexed the territory in 1950 and held it until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank.The West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, and approximately 391,000 Israeli settlers, and approximately another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling (2004) concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power. Etymology West Bank The name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Diffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which subsequently annexed it in 1950. This annexation was considered illegal and was recognized only by Britain, Iraq and Pakistan. The term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the "east bank" of this river. Cisjordan The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan (literally "on this side of the River Jordan") is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian. The name West Bank, however, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army's conquest. In English, the name Cisjordan is occasionally used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean, particularly in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times. The analogous Transjordan (literally "on the other side of the River Jordan") has historically been used to designate the region now roughly comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River. History From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers (France, UK, USA, etc.) allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine (1920–47). The San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. The British proclaimed Abdullah emir of Transjordan on 11 April 1921. He declared it an independent Hashemite kingdom on 25 May 1946. In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine. The resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, and an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem; a broader region of the modern-day West Bank was assigned to the Arab State. The resolution designated the territory described as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea" (the area now known as the "West Bank") as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan (renamed Jordan three years after independence in 1946). Jordanian West Bank The 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Israel and Jordan (essentially reflecting the battlefield after the war). Following the December 1948 Jericho Conference, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River in 1950, naming it "West Bank" or "Cisjordan", and designated the area east of the river as "East Bank" or "Transjordan". Jordan (as it was now known) ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordan's annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom and Iraq. A two-state option, dividing Palestine, as opposed to a binary solution arose during the period of the British mandate in the area. The United Nations Partition Plan had envisaged two states, one Jewish and the other Arab/Palestinian, but in the wake of the war only one emerged at the time. During the 1948 war, Israel occupied parts of what was designated in the UN partition plan as “Palestine”. King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and East Jerusalem were granted Jordanian citizenship and half of the Jordanian Parliament seats.Many refugees continued to live in camps and relied on UNRWA assistance for sustenance. Palestinian refugees constituted more than a third of the kingdom's population of 1.5 million. The last Jordanian elections in which West Bank residents would vote were those of April 1967, but their parliamentary representatives would continue in office until 1988, when West Bank seats were finally abolished. Palestinians enjoyed equal opportunities in all sectors of the state without discrimination. Agriculture remained the primary activity of the territory. The West Bank, despite its smaller area, contained half of Jordan's agricultural land. In 1966, 43% of the labor force of 55,000 worked in agriculture, and 2,300 km2 were under cultivation. In 1965, 15,000 workers were employed in industry, producing 7% of the GNP. This number fell after the 1967 war, and would not be surpassed until 1983. The tourism industry also played an important role. 26 branches of 8 Arab banks were present. The Jordanian dinar became legal tender, and remains so there today. 80% of Jordan's fruit-growing land and 40% of its vegetables lay in the West Bank, .... Discover the Z L Arkadie popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Z L Arkadie books.

Best Seller Z L Arkadie Books of September 2021

Waiting On You book summary, reviews and downlod

Waiting On You


Following a devastating breakup, Robin Hester swears off men.  Then, Dexter Frampton walks into her life. He's arguably the most handsome man she's ever seen, but he has a nagging habit...

The Duke's Love book summary, reviews and downlod

The Duke's Love


A young mother escapes a lousy marriage and ends up in Italy where she's hotly pursued by a sexy duke and world famous artist, Gianfranco Guardi. But can she trust her heart again and take a...

Adore Her, More of Her: Daisy & Jack, #2 book summary, reviews and downlod

Adore Her, More of Her: Daisy & Jack, #2


The past, present, and future merge in this final installment of the LOVE in the USA series.It looks like we made it. Belmont and I were committed after one intense week f...

Desire book summary, reviews and downlod



Who am I? His enemy or his forever lover? The new year has begun, and I still can’t get Jasper Christmas out of my system. But here he is in my life once again. I don...

The Professor's Heart book summary, reviews and downlod

The Professor's Heart


The guy in the seat next to me smiles and I quickly turn away. My best friend Elena should be sitting there. But she’s gone now. I hop to my feet because I can’t ...

The Boss' Desire book summary, reviews and downlod

The Boss' Desire


Before him… I didn't know what I wanted out of life, and certainly not in a man. But all of that began to change the morning I spilled coffee on a stranger's cashmere c...

Destined book summary, reviews and downlod



What happens when Fate hands Jamison Cox a second-chance to claim the one who got away? When Bryn Christmas ran into Jamison Cox at the airport, she was shocked. And why o...

Seduction book summary, reviews and downlod



A bright young doctor falls for her hot new boss, a mysterious man with dark secrets and a desire to claim her as his own. Dr. Penina Ross learns that the stranger she ...

Find Her, Keep Her: A Martha's Vineyard Love Story book summary, reviews and downlod

Find Her, Keep Her: A Martha's Vineyard Love Story


He led and I followed him into the most sensual time of my life.Travel writer Daisy Blanchard discovers the worst news ever. Her boyfriend is now engaged to her best frien...

Claimed book summary, reviews and downlod



The Christmases’ most shocking secret has been revealed. What does that mean for Jasper and my relationship? My lover once told me he's a man who has obligations. He was once ready to dest...

He's So Good: Robert & Carter book summary, reviews and downlod

He's So Good: Robert & Carter


Sparks fly when Robert and Carter find themselves bidding for the same project. Thanks to others, what starts as friendly competition quickly morphs into their own version of the Game of Thr...

Secrets That See The Light book summary, reviews and downlod

Secrets That See The Light


Whoever tried to kill Rosalie isn’t done yet. As Chance makes protecting Rosalie his sole mission, secrets that could change the Sterlings forever come are brought to light. Also, Rosalie ...

Still In Love With Her: Maggie & Vince, #1 book summary, reviews and downlod

Still In Love With Her: Maggie & Vince, #1


Maggie and Vince put their relationship through the wringer. But don't let their foibles fool you, these two are meant to be.Still In Love With Her (Maggie & Vince, #1) is th...

Embrace book summary, reviews and downlod



Dive into the thrilling conclusion of Asher Christmas's story! Penina learns something about her parentage that threatens to extinguish her white-hot romance with her bo...

The Secret Keeper book summary, reviews and downlod

The Secret Keeper


In 1953 Edna Campbell and Conrad Sterling were obligated to marry. But the couple had a mind of their own--one that created a legacy of secrets. Family secrets are forced...

Say You Love Her: An L.A. Love Story book summary, reviews and downlod

Say You Love Her: An L.A. Love Story


Love brings this bad boy billionaire to his knees. But is Charlie Lord ready for the woman he never saw coming?Fall head over heels in love. Indulge in this spicy romance re...

Legacy of Secrets book summary, reviews and downlod

Legacy of Secrets


It starts with an invitation but ends with a mysterious disappearance, or maybe it's murder. They don't know yet. But time to discover the truth is running out--tick tock.

Made To Love Her: Maggie & Vince, #2 book summary, reviews and downlod

Made To Love Her: Maggie & Vince, #2


It's been a long time coming—Maggie & Vince are finally ready to say, "I do." But can they navigate the pitfalls set before them and make it to the altar without falling to pieces? Mea...

Bliss book summary, reviews and downlod



The thrilling conclusion of The Freed Billionaire Spencer Christmas Trilogy. Jada and Spencer fight for their love, their family, and their forever. Dive into this enthrallin...

There's Something About Her, A Manhattan Love Story book summary, reviews and downlod

There's Something About Her, A Manhattan Love Story


The LOVE in the USA series travels from Martha's Vineyard to Manhattan in this unputdownable contemporary romance.Maggie Conroy is your average city girl. She has good gir...

Bliss book summary, reviews and downlod



So many secrets have come to light—yet that's to be expected when your last name is Christmas and Forte. But so quickly, I've changed. I am no longer naive and ready to jump miserably to m...

Say You Love Me: Charlie & Angel book summary, reviews and downlod

Say You Love Me: Charlie & Angel


Charlie and Angel take center stage in this modern tale of love.One moment of weakness comes back to haunt Charlie Lord in a big way. He's going to need his cousin, Maggie Adams,...

Enthrall book summary, reviews and downlod



She’s innocent. He’s not. But she has an itch only he can scratch. Jada Forte is down on her luck. She lost her job, rent is due, and her bank account is in the red. ...

He's So Bad, A San Francisco Love Story book summary, reviews and downlod

He's So Bad, A San Francisco Love Story


Rock bottom is a lonely place for this unapologetic billionaire playboy. But could true love, the one thing he's always rejected, be his saving grace? There's a...

Intrigued book summary, reviews and downlod



Romantic, erotic, tense, and enjoyable. Fun read. I was forced, yes forced, to buy the trilogy because I need to know what happens.--Critical Cheryl, Goodreads Reviewer ...

Know Her, Love Her: Daisy & Jack, #1 book summary, reviews and downlod

Know Her, Love Her: Daisy & Jack, #1


Daisy and Belmont's start was red hot and passionate. But after suffering a devastating loss, grief threatens to end their fated romance. But one thing is for certain, wherever they run...

Impulse book summary, reviews and downlod



Explosive secrets rattle Spencer and my budding relationship to the core. The hits keep coming as my mother manipulates me into working on a political campaign of her choosing. It looks as i...

Exposed book summary, reviews and downlod



Spencer and Jada’s story continues in this bonus book of The Freed Billionaire Spencer Christmas Trilogy. First comes love, then comes marriage, and next comes Exposed. Dive...

The Chef's Passion book summary, reviews and downlod

The Chef's Passion


It was my own undoing, I guess. Nothing was going to get in the way of my dreams. Not even Randy, my unwitting and unreasonable boss, who's undoubtedly the most arrogant chef in the world.

Best Seller Z L Arkadie Audio Books of September 2021

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