Who is Joe Kissell?

Joe Kissell Popular Books

Joe Kissell Biography & Facts

Dvorak (listen) is a keyboard layout for English patented in 1936 by August Dvorak and his brother-in-law, William Dealey, as a faster and more ergonomic alternative to the QWERTY layout (the de facto standard keyboard layout). Dvorak proponents claim that it requires less finger motion and as a result reduces errors, increases typing speed, reduces repetitive strain injuries, or is simply more comfortable than QWERTY.Dvorak has not replaced QWERTY as the most common keyboard layout because QWERTY was introduced 60 years earlier and because Dvorak's advantages over QWERTY were not large enough. However, most major modern operating systems (such as Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, Chrome OS, and BSD) allow a user to switch to the Dvorak layout. iOS does not provide a system-wide, touchscreen Dvorak keyboard, although third-party software is capable of adding the layout to iOS, and the layout can be chosen for use with any hardware keyboard, regardless of printed characters on the keyboard. Several modifications were designed by the team directed by Dvorak or by ANSI. These variations have been collectively or individually termed the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, the American Simplified Keyboard or simply the Simplified Keyboard, but they all have come to be known commonly as the Dvorak keyboard or Dvorak layout. Overview Dvorak was designed with the belief that it would significantly increase typing speeds with respect to the QWERTY layout by alleviating some of its perceived shortcomings, such as: Many common letter combinations require awkward finger motions. Some common letter combinations are typed with the same finger. (e.g. "ed" and "de") Many common letter combinations require a finger to jump over the home row. Many common letter combinations are typed with one hand while the other sits idle (e.g. was, were). Most typing is done with the left hand, which for most people is not the dominant hand. About 16% of typing is done on the lower row, 52% on the top row and only 32% on the home row.August Dvorak studied letter frequencies and the physiology of the hand and created a new layout to alleviate the above problems, based on the following principles: Letters should be typed by alternating between hands (which makes typing more rhythmic, increases speed, reduces error, and reduces fatigue). On a Dvorak keyboard, vowels and the most used symbol characters are on the left (with the vowels on the home row), while the most used consonants are on the right. For maximum speed and efficiency, the most common letters and bigrams should be typed on the home row, where the fingers rest, and under the strongest fingers (Thus, about 70% of letter keyboard strokes on Dvorak are done on the home row and only 22% and 8% on the top and bottom rows respectively). The least common letters should be on the bottom row which is the hardest row to reach. The right hand should do more of the typing because most people are right-handed. Digraphs should not be typed with adjacent fingers. Stroking should generally move from the edges of the board to the middle. An observation of this principle is that, for many people, when tapping fingers on a table, it is easier going from little finger to index than vice versa. This motion on a keyboard is called inboard stroke flow.The Dvorak layout is intended for the English language. For other European languages, letter frequencies, letter sequences, and bigrams differ from those of English. Also, many languages have letters that do not occur in English. For non-English use, these differences lessen the alleged advantages of the original Dvorak keyboard. However, the Dvorak principles have been applied to the design of keyboards for other languages, though the primary keyboards used by most countries are based on the QWERTY design. The layout was completed in 1932 and granted U.S. Patent 2,040,248 in 1936. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) designated the Dvorak keyboard as an alternative standard keyboard layout in 1982 (INCITS 207-1991 R2007; previously X4.22-1983, X3.207:1991), "Alternate Keyboard Arrangement for Alphanumeric Machines". The original ANSI Dvorak layout was available as a factory-supplied option on the original IBM Selectric typewriter. History August Dvorak was an educational psychologist and professor of education at the University of Washington in Seattle. Touch typing had come into wide use by that time and Dvorak became interested in the layout while serving as an advisor to Gertrude Ford, who was writing her master's thesis on typing errors. He quickly concluded that the QWERTY layout needed to be replaced, as QWERTY had been laid out not with the pure intention of ease and speed, but heavily including the intention of sequentially distant keyboard strokes so that the mechanical typewriter arms did not jam. Dvorak was joined by his brother-in-law William Dealey, a professor of education at the then North Texas State Teacher's College in Denton, Texas. Dvorak and Dealey's objective was to scientifically design a keyboard to decrease typing errors, speed up typing, and lessen typist fatigue. They engaged in extensive research while designing their keyboard layout. In 1914 and 1915, Dealey attended seminars on the science of motion and later reviewed slow-motion films of typists with Dvorak. Dvorak and Dealey meticulously studied the English language, researching the most used letters and letter combinations. They also studied the physiology of the hand. The result in 1932 was the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard.In 1893, George Blickensderfer had developed a keyboard layout for the Blickensderfer typewriter model 5 that used the letters DHIATENSOR for the home row. Blickensderfer had determined that 85% of English words contained these letters. The Dvorak keyboard uses the same letters in its home row, apart from replacing R with U, and even keeps the consonants in the same order, but moves the vowels to the left: AOEUIDHTNS. In 1933, Dvorak started entering typists trained on his keyboard into the International Commercial Schools Contest, which was a typing contest sponsored by typewriter manufacturers consisting of a series of professional and amateur contests. The professional contests had typists sponsored by typewriter companies to advertise their machines. In the 1930s, the Tacoma, Washington, school district ran an experimental program in typing designed by Dvorak to determine whether to hold Dvorak layout classes. The experiment put 2,700 highschool students through Dvorak typing classes and found that students learned Dvorak in one-third the time it took to learn QWERTY. When a new school board was elected, however, it chose to terminate the Dvorak classes. During World War II, while in the Navy, Dvorak conducted experiments which he claimed showed that typists could be retrained to Dvorak in a mere 10 days, though he discarded at least two previous studies which were conducted and whose results are unkno.... Discover the Joe Kissell popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Joe Kissell books.

Best Seller Joe Kissell Books of June 2022

Aprendendo a Proteger suas Senhas book summary, reviews and downlod

Aprendendo a Proteger suas Senhas

0/5$11.99

As senhas têm se tornado um aspecto irritante da vida moderna, e tópicos essenciais para o entendimento deste assunto, como tamanho de senhas, autenticação e verificação em duas etapas...

Real World Mac Maintenance and Backups book summary, reviews and downlod

Real World Mac Maintenance and Backups

0/5$23.99

This is the eBook version of the printed book.Are you making reliable backups and performing regular maintenance on your Mac? Too few Mac users take the time to do so, and they regret...

Take Control of Backing Up Your Mac, Fourth Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of Backing Up Your Mac, Fourth Edition

0/5$14.99

Set up a rock-solid backup strategy so that you can restore quickly and completely, no matter what catastrophe arises. Version 4.3, updated May 30, 2022 Joe Kissell...

Take Control of iCloud, Eighth Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of iCloud, Eighth Edition

0/5$14.99

Understand iCloud’s capabilities and limitations, and put its key features to good use! Version 8.0.1, updated February 12, 2022 Apple’s iCloud service is highl...

Take Control of Your Passwords, Third Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of Your Passwords, Third Edition

0/5$14.99

Overcome password frustration with Joe Kissell's expert advice! Version 3.2, updated July 28, 2021 Password overload has driven many of us to take dangerous shortc...

Take Control of Automating Your Mac, Third Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of Automating Your Mac, Third Edition

0/5$14.99

Updated to cover Catalina and Mojave!Looking for ways to work smarter and faster with your Mac? In this updated and expanded third edition of his popular guide to Mac auto...

Take Control of 1Password, Fifth Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of 1Password, Fifth Edition

0/5$14.99

Easily create and enter secure passwords on all your devices! Version 5.0, updated July 28, 2021Annoyed by having to type hard-to-remember passwords? Let 1P...

Take Control of the Mac Command Line with Terminal, Third Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of the Mac Command Line with Terminal, Third Edition

0/5$14.99

Learn how to unleash your inner Unix geek! Version 3.2, updated April 13, 2022 Release your inner geek and harness the power of the Unix underpinnings of macOS! Thi...

Take Control of DEVONthink 3 book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of DEVONthink 3

0/5Free

Manage your information with the powerful tools in DEVONthink 3 Version 1.8, updated March 16, 2022 DEVONthink 3 offers a slew of features for defeating information...

Take Control of Backing Up Your Mac, Fourth Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of Backing Up Your Mac, Fourth Edition

0/5$14.99

Set up a rock-solid backup strategy so that you can restore quickly and completely, no matter what catastrophe arises.  Version 4.1, updated November 19, 2021

Take Control of Apple Mail, Fifth Edition book summary, reviews and downlod

Take Control of Apple Mail, Fifth Edition

0/5$14.99

Master Mail in macOS, iOS, and iPadOS! Version 5.1, updated January 26, 2021 Use Apple Mail more effectively! Email expert Joe Kissell explains what's new w...

Best Seller Joe Kissell Audio Books of June 2022

You were invited to try Coinbase!Coinbase is the world's most trusted place to buy and sell cryptocurrency. Open an account today, and if you buy or sell $100 or more of crypto, you'll receive $10 worth of free Bitcoin!