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Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is a vector-borne disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks in the genus Ixodes. The most common sign of infection is an expanding red rash, known as erythema migrans, that appears at the site of the tick bite about a week after it occurred. The rash is typically neither itchy nor painful. Approximately 70–80% of infected people develop a rash. Early diagnosis can be difficult. Other early symptoms may include fever, headache and tiredness. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others. Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur. Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs. Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to 20% of people develop joint pains, memory problems, and tiredness for at least six months.Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected ticks of the genus Ixodes. In the United States, ticks of concern are usually of the Ixodes scapularis type, and must be attached for at least 36 hours before the bacteria can spread. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks may spread the bacteria more quickly. In North America, the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, B. bissettiae, and B. mayonii cause Lyme disease. In Europe and Asia, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, B. spielmanii, and 4 other species also cause of the disease. The disease does not appear to be transmissible between people, by other animals, or through food. Diagnosis is based upon a combination of symptoms, history of tick exposure, and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood. Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. Testing of individual ticks is not typically useful.Prevention includes efforts to prevent tick bites by wearing clothing to cover the arms and legs, and using DEET or picaridin-based insect repellents. Using pesticides to reduce tick numbers may also be effective. Ticks can be removed using tweezers. If the removed tick was full of blood, a single dose of doxycycline may be used to prevent development of infection, but is not generally recommended since development of infection is rare. If an infection develops, a number of antibiotics are effective, including doxycycline, amoxicillin, and cefuroxime. Standard treatment usually lasts for two or three weeks. Some people develop a fever and muscle and joint pains from treatment which may last for one or two days. In those who develop persistent symptoms, long-term antibiotic therapy has not been found to be useful.Lyme disease is the most common disease spread by ticks in the Northern Hemisphere. It is estimated to affect 300,000 people a year in the United States and 65,000 people a year in Europe. Infections are most common in the spring and early summer. Lyme disease was diagnosed as a separate condition for the first time in 1975 in Lyme, Connecticut. It was originally mistaken for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The bacterium involved was first described in 1981 by Willy Burgdorfer. Chronic symptoms following treatment are well described and are known as "post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome" (PTLDS). PTLDS is different from chronic Lyme disease, a term no longer supported by the scientific community and used in different ways by different groups. Some healthcare providers claim that PTLDS is caused by persistent infection, but this is not believed to be true because no evidence of persistent infection can be found after standard treatment. A vaccine for Lyme disease was marketed in the United States between 1998 and 2002, but was withdrawn from the market due to poor sales. Research is ongoing to develop new vaccines. Signs and symptoms Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems and produce a broad range of symptoms. Not everyone with Lyme disease has all of the symptoms, and many of the symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease but can occur with other diseases as well.The incubation period from infection to the onset of symptoms is usually one to two weeks but can be much shorter (days), or much longer (months to years). Lyme symptoms most often occur from May to September in the northern hemisphere, because the nymphal stage of the tick is responsible for most cases. Asymptomatic infection exists, but occurs in less than 7% of infected individuals in the United States. Asymptomatic infection may be much more common among those infected in Europe. Early localized infection Early localized infection can occur when the infection has not yet spread throughout the body. Only the site where the infection has first come into contact with the skin is affected. The initial sign of about 80% of Lyme infections is an erythema migrans (EM) rash at the site of a tick bite, often near skin folds, such as the armpit, groin, or back of knee, on the trunk, under clothing straps, or in children's hair, ears, or neck. Most people who get infected do not remember seeing a tick or the bite. The rash appears typically one or two weeks (range 3–32 days) after the bite and expands 2–3 cm per day up to a diameter of 5–70 cm (median 16 cm). The rash is usually circular or oval, red or bluish, and may have an elevated or darker center. In about 79% of cases in Europe but only 19% of cases in endemic areas of the U.S., the rash gradually clears from the center toward the edges, possibly forming a "bull's eye" pattern. The rash may feel warm but usually is not itchy, is rarely tender or painful, and takes up to four weeks to resolve if untreated.The EM rash is often accompanied by symptoms of a viral-like illness, including fatigue, headache, body aches, fever, and chills, but usually not nausea or upper-respiratory problems. These symptoms may also appear without a rash, or linger after the rash disappears. Lyme can progress to later stages without these symptoms or a rash.People with high fever for more than two days or whose other symptoms of viral-like illness do not improve despite antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease, or who have abnormally low levels of white or red cells or platelets in the blood, should be investigated for possible coinfection with other tick-borne diseases, such as ehrlichiosis and babesiosis. Early disseminated infection Within days to weeks after the onset of local infection, the Borrelia bacteria may spread through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. In 10–20% of untreated cases, EM rashes develop at sites across the body that bear no relation to the original tick bite. Transient muscle pains and joint pains are also common.In about 10–15% of untreated people, Lyme causes neurological problems known as neuroborreliosis. Early neuroborreliosis typically appears 4–6 weeks (range 1–12 weeks) after the tick bite and involves some combination of lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, radic.... Discover the Rose M Spielman Phd popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Rose M Spielman Phd books.

Best Seller Rose M Spielman Phd Books of September 2021

The Love Hypothesis e-book Download

The Love Hypothesis

Ali HazelwoodSeptember 14, 2021$9.99

A BuzzFeed Best Summer Read of 2021 When a fake relationship between scientists meets the irresistible force of attraction, it throws one woman's carefully calculated theories on love into c...

Courage Under Fire e-book Download

Courage Under Fire

Lindsay McKennaFebruary 23, 2021$6.99

A gripping new novel of the West featuring the cowboys of Silver Creek by acclaimed New York Times bestselling author Lindsay McKenna, perfect for fans of the exciting novels of B.J. Daniels...

A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century e-book Download

A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century

Heather Heying & Bret WeinsteinSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

A bold, provocative history of our species finds the roots of civilization’s success and failure in our evolutionary biology. We are living through the most prosperous age in all of human ...

Ugly Love e-book Download

Ugly Love

Colleen HooverAugust 5, 2014$10.99

From Colleen Hoover, the #1 New York Times bestselling author of It Ends With Us, a heart-wrenching love story that proves attraction at first sight can be messy. When Tate Collins meets air...

Spring at Saddle Run e-book Download

Spring at Saddle Run

Delores FossenMay 25, 2021$1.99

The truth about a small-town scandal unleashes one wildly unexpected romance. Millie Parkman Dayton is still healing from the fatal car accident that claimed her husband and turned her into ...

Nine Perfect Strangers e-book Download

Nine Perfect Strangers

Liane MoriartyNovember 6, 2018$9.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER Now a Hulu original series “If three characters were good in Big Little Lies , nine are even better in Nine Perfect Strangers .” —Lisa Scottoline, The New Yor...

Running on Diesel e-book Download

Running on Diesel

Melissa FosterSeptember 15, 2021$4.99

A fun, sexy, and emotionally riveting standalone contemporary romance by New York Times bestselling author Melissa Foster. RUNNING ON DIESEL is the perfect love story for those who enjoy fie...

You Got Anything Stronger? e-book Download

You Got Anything Stronger?

Gabrielle UnionSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

“Funny, tender, and so good.” —Mindy Kaling, #1 New York Times bestselling author of Why Not Me? Remember when we hit it off so well that we decided We’re Going to Nee...

The Night She Disappeared e-book Download

The Night She Disappeared

Lisa JewellSeptember 7, 2021$12.99

“Utterly gripping with richly drawn, hugely compelling characters, this is a first-class thriller with heart.” —Lucy Foley, New York Times bestselling author “Insane suspense.” —...

Harlem Shuffle e-book Download

Harlem Shuffle

Colson WhiteheadSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

From the two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Underground Railroad and The Nickel Boys , a gloriously entertaining novel of heists, shakedowns, and rip-offs set in Harlem in the 196...

Miss Delightful e-book Download

Miss Delightful

Grace BurrowesSeptember 14, 2021$4.99

Miss Dorcas Delancey, vicar's daughter and advocate for the less fortunate, has been  guarding her heart from fortune hunters and fashionable fribbles for years. She's completely un...

A Thousand Days in Venice e-book Download

A Thousand Days in Venice

Marlena de BlasiJune 11, 2013$1.99

An American chef meets the love of her life among the beautiful canals and exquisite cuisine of Venice—“better than a romance novel, it’s the real thing” ( New Orleans Times-Picayune...

Vanderbilt e-book Download

Vanderbilt

Anderson Cooper & Katherine HoweSeptember 21, 2021$14.99

New York Times bestselling author and journalist Anderson Cooper teams with New York Times bestselling historian and novelist Katherine Howe to chronicle the rise and fall of a legendary Ame...

Forgotten in Death e-book Download

Forgotten in Death

J. D. RobbSeptember 7, 2021$14.99

In the latest novel in the #1 New York Times bestselling series, homicide detective Eve Dallas sifts through the wreckage of the past to find a killer. The body was left in a dumpster like s...

Apples Never Fall e-book Download

Apples Never Fall

Liane MoriartySeptember 14, 2021$14.99

From Liane Moriarty, the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Big Little Lies and Nine Perfect Strangers , comes Apples Never Fall , a novel that looks at marriage, siblings, and how the ...

White Nights e-book Download

White Nights

Anna Zaires & Charmaine PaulsSeptember 14, 2021$5.99

"A one-sitting, unputdownable read that will have your pulse racing from start to finish." ~  L.J. Shen,  Wall Street Journal  Bestselling Author Power. Th...

Breakdown e-book Download

Breakdown

Sara ParetskyJanuary 3, 2012$2.99

A strange crime gets V.I. Warshawski involved with some of Chicago’s most rich and powerful players in this thriller from New York Times bestselling author Sara Paretsky. When a group of C...

Peril e-book Download

Peril

Bob Woodward & Robert CostaSeptember 21, 2021$14.99

The transition from President Donald J. Trump to President Joseph R. Biden Jr. stands as one of the most dangerous periods in American history. But as # 1 internationally bestselling author ...

A Slow Fire Burning e-book Download

A Slow Fire Burning

Paula HawkinsAugust 31, 2021$14.99

AN INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The scorching new thriller from the #1 New York Times bestselling author of The Girl on the Train.   “ A Slow Fire Burning twists and turns lik...

Shielding Ember e-book Download

Shielding Ember

Susan StokerSeptember 14, 2021$4.99

For as long as she can remember, Ember Maxwell’s life hasn’t been her own. A world-renowned influencer, she’s a brand unto herself, created by her parents—who also want Olympic glory...

The Sunny Side Up Cozy Mysteries Box Set e-book Download

The Sunny Side Up Cozy Mysteries Box Set

Rosie A. PointJuly 22, 2021$0.99

Five cozy mysteries for you to enjoy... When Sunny arrives in Parfait, Florida, she's set on sun, sand, and rejuvenation after a messy divorce. She's done dealing with her flaky ex, and the ...

Tom Clancy Duty and Honor e-book Download

Tom Clancy Duty and Honor

Grant BlackwoodJune 14, 2016$2.99

Jack Ryan Jr. is caught in the cross-hairs of a would-be tyrant in this exhilarating thriller in Tom Clancy's #1 New York Times bestselling series. Jack Ryan, Jr., is on his own. He's b...

The Corpse Who Knew Too Much e-book Download

The Corpse Who Knew Too Much

Debra SennefelderSeptember 29, 2020$7.99

Food blogger Hope Early takes on a cold case that's heating up fast . . .   Building on her recipe for success with her food blog, Hope at Home, Hope is teaching her first blogging clas...

Billy Summers e-book Download

Billy Summers

Stephen KingAugust 3, 2021$14.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller From legendary storyteller Stephen King, whose “restless imagination is a power that cannot be contained” ( The New York Times Book Review ), comes a thrilli...

The Midnight Library e-book Download

The Midnight Library

Matt HaigSeptember 29, 2020$10.99

The New York Times bestselling WORLDWIDE phenomenon Winner of the Goodreads Choice Award for Fiction | A Good Morning America Book Club Pick | Independent ( London) Ten Best Books of the Yea...

Nightmare in Pink e-book Download

Nightmare in Pink

John D. MacDonald & Lee ChildOctober 12, 1978$1.99

From a beloved master of crime fiction, Nightmare in Pink is one of many classic novels featuring Travis McGee, the hard-boiled detective who lives on a houseboat.   Travis McGee’s pe...

The Lost Symbol e-book Download

The Lost Symbol

Dan BrownSeptember 15, 2009$9.99

#1 WORLDWIDE BESTSELLER • An intelligent, lightning-paced thriller s et within the hidden chambers, tunnels, and temples of Washington, D.C., with surprises at every turn. • Don’t miss...

The Rebound e-book Download

The Rebound

Kendall RyanSeptember 14, 2021$4.99

A smokin' hot new standalone romance from New York Times bestseller, Kendall Ryan. My coach hates me, and our team captain now watches my every move, so that's super fun. Which is why I'm tr...

A Mind Awake e-book Download

A Mind Awake

C. S. LewisFebruary 14, 2017$1.99

A repackaged edition of the revered author’s anthology featuring hundreds of selections from his writings, organized by the main themes of Christian faith. C. S. Lewis—the great British ...

Breathless Secrets e-book Download

Breathless Secrets

Elizabeth LennoxSeptember 17, 2021$3.99

Was she risking her heart for a liar? Molly McCabe helped people.  As director of the neighborhood community center, she loved making the world a better place.  So when James Morga...

Eaters of the Dead e-book Download

Eaters of the Dead

Michael CrichtonMarch 12, 1976$1.99

From the bestselling author of  Jurassic Park ,  Timeline , and  Sphere  comes an epic tale of unspeakable horror.   It is 922 A.D. The refined Arab courtier Ibn Fad...

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

Stranger in the Lake e-book Download

Stranger in the Lake

Kimberly BelleJune 9, 2020$2.99

“Spellbinding. Another outstanding novel by Kimberly Belle, masterfully written to lure you in and never let go.” — Samantha Downing, USA Today bestselling author of My Lovely Wife Whe...

The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck e-book Download

The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck

Mark MansonSeptember 13, 2016$12.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller Over 1 million copies sold In this generation-defining self-help guide, a superstar blogger cuts through the crap to show us how to stop trying to be "positive" ...

Blind Tiger e-book Download

Blind Tiger

Sandra BrownAugust 3, 2021$9.99

With a “knack for romantic tension and page-turning suspense, this one is a winner.” The year 1920 comes in with a roar in this rousing and suspenseful  New York Times  bestsel...

A Perfect Plan e-book Download

A Perfect Plan

Alyssa DrakeApril 2, 2019$0.99

An opinionated tomboy must navigate the dangers of society, unaware her brother's killer is lurking in her midst. When her brother's ship sinks off the coast of France, Miss Samantha Hasting...

Based on a True Story e-book Download

Based on a True Story

Norm MacdonaldSeptember 20, 2016$9.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • “Driving, wild and hilarious” ( The Washington Post ), here is the incredible “memoir” of the legendary actor, gambler, raconteur, and Saturday Night Li...

The Paper Palace e-book Download

The Paper Palace

Miranda Cowley HellerJuly 6, 2021$13.99

REESE'S BOOK CLUB PICK INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER THE PAPER PALACE IS: “Filled with secrets, love, lies and a summer beach house. What more could you ask?”— Parade “A deepl...

The Last Thing He Told Me e-book Download

The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$13.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TODAY * ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY * CNN * TOWN & ...

The Madness of Crowds e-book Download

The Madness of Crowds

Louise PennyAugust 24, 2021$14.99

Instant #1 New York Times Bestseller AARP The Magazine – Recommended Summer Reading CNN – A Most Anticipated Book of August Bustle – A Most Anticipated Book of August Chief Inspector A...

A Woman Betrayed e-book Download

A Woman Betrayed

Barbara DelinskyOctober 13, 2009$2.99

A classic novel from an exceptional storyteller, A Woman Betrayed, first published in 1991, is a stunning tale of troubling secrets that can hide beneath the placid surface of a seemingly go...

By Sin I Rise: Part One e-book Download

By Sin I Rise: Part One

Cora ReillySeptember 15, 2021$3.99

Maddox – Mad Dog – White hates everything the name Vitiello stands for, after he witnessed his father and his men getting butchered by the Capo of the Italian mob in their territory. Rai...

A Hope for Emily e-book Download

A Hope for Emily

Kate HewittFebruary 20, 2020$3.99

“ So heart-wrenching … This story just grips you right from the start. I had a really hard time putting it down and found myself reading well into the night… Perfect for fans of such w...

The Cult e-book Download

The Cult

Penelope SkySeptember 14, 2021$7.99

New York Times bestselling author Penelope Sky pens another dark and suspenseful masterpiece. I see his wicked smile in the theatre. I see it in the apartment across from mine. I see it ever...

The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo e-book Download

The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo

Taylor Jenkins ReidJune 13, 2017$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “If you ’ re looking for a book to take on holiday this summer, The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo has got all the glitz and glamour to make it a perfect beach r...

Enemy at the Gates e-book Download

Enemy at the Gates

Vince Flynn & Kyle MillsSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

Picking up where the “tour de force” ( The Providence Journal ) Total Power left off, the next thriller in the #1 New York Times bestselling Mitch Rapp series follows the CIA’s top ope...

The Anthology of Scottish Folk Tales e-book Download

The Anthology of Scottish Folk Tales

Donald SmithSeptember 2, 2019$0.99

This enchanting collection of stories gathers together legends from across Scotland in one special volume. Drawn from The History Press' popular Folk Tales series, herein lies a treasure tro...

The Trapped Wife e-book Download

The Trapped Wife

Samantha HayesSeptember 8, 2021$0.99

‘ Jaw-dropping … I did literally gasp and say, “NO WAY!” out loud… And at the end, I just sat there thinking, “What the hell did I just read?” … freaking awesome … The twis...

Cold Fire e-book Download

Cold Fire

Dean KoontzJanuary 16, 1991$1.99

A man on a mission must come to terms with his forgotten past in this gripping thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Dean Koontz. In Portland, he saved a young boy from a drunk ...

Beautiful World, Where Are You e-book Download

Beautiful World, Where Are You

Sally RooneySeptember 7, 2021$14.99

AN INSTANT #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTELLER Beautiful World, Where Are You is a new novel by Sally Rooney, the bestselling author of Normal People and Conversations with Friends . Alice, a noveli...

Best Seller Rose M Spielman Phd Audio Books of September 2021

A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century: Evolution and the Challenges of Modern Life (Unabridged) audiobook
A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century: Evolution and the Challenges of Modern Life (Unabridged)Heather Heying & Bret Weinstein$14.99

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Based on a True Story: A Memoir (Unabridged) audiobook
Based on a True Story: A Memoir (Unabridged)Norm Macdonald$14.99

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Greenlights (Unabridged) audiobook
Greenlights (Unabridged)Matthew McConaughey$14.99

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Enemy at the Gates (Unabridged) audiobook
Enemy at the Gates (Unabridged)Vince Flynn$14.99

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The Rules of Magic (Unabridged) audiobook
The Rules of Magic (Unabridged)Alice Hoffman$3.99

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Apples Never Fall audiobook
Apples Never FallLiane Moriarty$19.99

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Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged) audiobook
Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged)David Goggins$21.99

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The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck audiobook
The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ckMark Manson$14.99

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Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged) audiobook
Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged)Robert T. Kiyosaki$12.99

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Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged) audiobook
Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged)James Clear$14.99

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