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The Mercury 13 were thirteen American women who, as part of a privately funded program, successfully underwent the same physiological screening tests as had the astronauts selected by NASA on April 9, 1959, for Project Mercury. The term was coined in 1995 by Hollywood producer James Cross as a comparison to the Mercury Seven name given to the selected male astronauts. The Mercury 13 women were not part of NASA's astronaut program, never flew in space as part of a NASA mission, and never met as a whole group. In the 1960s some of these women were among those who lobbied the White House and Congress to have women included in the astronaut program. They testified before a congressional committee in 1962. Clare Boothe Luce wrote an article for LIFE magazine publicizing the women and criticizing NASA for its failure to include women as astronauts. One of the thirteen, Wally Funk, was launched into space in a suborbital flight aboard Blue Origin's July 20, 2021 New Shepard 4 mission Flight 16, making her the oldest woman to go into space at age 82. History When NASA first planned to put people in space, they believed that the best candidates would be pilots, submarine crews or members of expeditions to the Antarctic or Arctic areas. They also thought people with more extreme sports backgrounds, such as parachuting, climbing, deep sea diving, etc. would excel in the program.NASA knew that numerous people would apply for this opportunity and testing would be expensive. President Dwight Eisenhower believed that military test pilots would make the best astronauts and had already passed rigorous testing and training within the government. This greatly altered the testing requirements and shifted the history of who was chosen to go to space originally.[2] William Randolph Lovelace II, former Flight Surgeon and later, chairman of the NASA Special Advisory Committee on Life Science, helped develop the tests for NASA's male astronauts and became curious to know how women would do taking the same tests. In 1960, Lovelace and Air Force Brig. General Don Flickinger invited Geraldyn "Jerrie" Cobb, known as an accomplished pilot, to undergo the same rigorous challenges as the men.Lovelace became interested in beginning this program because he was a medical doctor who had done the NASA physical testing for the official program. He was able to fund the unofficial program, and invited up to 25 women to come and take the physical tests. Lovelace was interested in the way that women's bodies would react to being in space. Although the program was privately funded, the program was hidden from the public eye. The Mercury 13 were not reported in any major publications, but they were not unknown. Cobb was the first American woman (and the only one of the Mercury 13) to undergo and pass all three phases of testing. Lovelace and Cobb recruited 19 more women to take the tests, financed by the husband of world-renowned aviator Jacqueline Cochran. Thirteen of the women passed the same tests as had the Mercury 7. Some were disqualified due to brain or heart anomalies. The results were announced at the second International Symposium on Submarine and Space Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden on August 18, 1960. Candidate background All of the candidates were accomplished pilots; Lovelace and Cobb reviewed the records of more than 700 women pilots in order to select candidates. They did not invite anyone with fewer than 1,000 hours of flight experience. Some of the women may have been recruited through the Ninety-Nines, a women pilot's organization of which Cobb was also a member. Some women responded after hearing about the opportunity through friends.This group of women, whom Jerrie Cobb called the First Lady Astronaut Trainees (FLATs), accepted the challenge to be tested for a research program.Wally Funk wrote an article saying that, given the secrecy of the testing, not all of the women candidates knew each other throughout their years of preparation. It was not until 1994 that ten of the Mercury 13 were introduced to each other for the first time. Tests Because doctors did not know all the conditions which astronauts might encounter in space, they had to guess at what tests might be required. These ranged from typical X-rays and general body physicals to the atypical; for instance, the women had to swallow a rubber tube in order to test the level of their stomach acids. Doctors tested the reflexes in the ulnar nerve of the woman's forearms by using electric shock. To induce vertigo, ice water was shot into their ears, freezing the inner ear so doctors could time how quickly they recovered. The women were pushed to exhaustion while riding specially weighted stationary bicycles, in order to test their respiration. They subjected themselves to many more invasive and uncomfortable tests. The 13 In the end, thirteen women passed the same Phase I physical examinations that the Lovelace Foundation had developed as part of NASA's astronaut selection process. Those thirteen women were: Myrtle Cagle Jerrie Cobb Janet Dietrich Marion Dietrich, twin of Janet Dietrich Wally Funk Sarah Gorelick (later Ratley) Jane "Janey" Briggs Hart Jean Hixson Rhea Woltman Gene Nora Stumbough (later Jessen) Irene Leverton Jerri Sloan (later Truhill) Bernice SteadmanAt 41, Jane Hart was the oldest candidate, and was the mother of eight. Wally Funk was the youngest, at 23. Marion and Janet Dietrich were twin sisters. Additional tests A few women took additional tests. Jerrie Cobb, Rhea Hurrle, and Wally Funk went to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma for Phase II testing, consisting of an isolation tank test and psychological evaluations. Because of other family and job commitments, not all of the women were able to take these tests. Once Cobb had passed the Phase III tests (advanced aeromedical examinations using military equipment and jet aircraft), the group prepared to gather in Pensacola, Florida at the Naval School of Aviation Medicine to follow suit. Two of the women quit their jobs in order to be able to attend. A few days before they were to report, however, the women received telegrams abruptly canceling the Pensacola testing. Without an official NASA request to run the tests, the United States Navy would not allow the use of its facilities for such an unofficial project.Funk reportedly also completed the third phase of testing, but this claim is misleading. Following NASA's cancellation of the tests, she found ways to continue being tested. She did complete most of the Phase III tests, but only by individual actions, not as part of a specific program. Cobb passed all the training exercises, ranking in the top 2% of all astronaut candidates of both genders.Regardless of the women's achievements in testing, NASA continued to exclude women as astronaut candidates for years. Despite the Soviet advancement to put the first woman in space in 1963 after Yuri Gagarin's orbit in 1961, the men who testified at the hearing were u.... Discover the Sue Mercury Sue Lyndon popular books. Find the top 100 most popular Sue Mercury Sue Lyndon books.

Best Seller Sue Mercury Sue Lyndon Books of October 2021

Vanderbilt e-book Download

Vanderbilt

Anderson Cooper & Katherine HoweSeptember 21, 2021$14.99

New York Times bestselling author and journalist Anderson Cooper teams with New York Times bestselling historian and novelist Katherine Howe to chronicle the rise and fall of a legendary Ame...

The Wish e-book Download

The Wish

Nicholas SparksSeptember 28, 2021$14.99

With exclusive travel photos and a special letter from the Author, only available for e-readers. From the author of The Longest Ride and The Return comes a novel about the enduring legacy of...

The Christmas Walk Caper: A Mac and Millie Mystery e-book Download

The Christmas Walk Caper: A Mac and Millie Mystery

JB MichaelsOctober 25, 2020$0.99

Add 'Catch a killer’ to your Christmas to-do list! Meet Mac, a retired hero cop with writer’s block and a penchant for trouble. What holiday hijinks will he get himself into? Probably a ...

Worst Boss Ever e-book Download

Worst Boss Ever

J. S. CooperOctober 17, 2021$4.99

During the day, I work for Dylan McAllister, the hunky billionaire who became CEO of his own company at thirty. He may be one of the hottest men I've ever met in my life, but he's also the b...

This Proud Heart e-book Download

This Proud Heart

Pearl S. BuckMay 21, 2013$1.99

In the 1930s, as her second marriage approaches, a brilliant and independent sculptor faces tensions between her art and everyday life in this novel by the author of The Good Earth . This Pr...

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The Other Husband

Kathryn CroftOctober 14, 2021$0.99

One dinner party will destroy everything. The night that throws a wrecking ball into Abby’s life starts out perfectly at first. There’s still a hint of summer sun in the purple-streaked ...

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The Holy Word for Morning Revival - Crystallization-study of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Volume 2

Witness LeeJuly 12, 2021$3.99

This book is intended as an aid to believers in developing a daily time of morning revival with the Lord in His word. At the same time, it provides a limited review of the semiannual trainin...

The Dawn of Everything e-book Download

The Dawn of Everything

David Graeber & David WengrowNovember 9, 2021$16.99

A dramatically new understanding of human history, challenging our most fundamental assumptions about social evolution—from the development of agriculture and cities to the origins of the ...

It Ends with Us e-book Download

It Ends with Us

Colleen HooverAugust 2, 2016$11.99

In this “brave and heartbreaking novel that digs its claws into you and doesn’t let go, long after you’ve finished it” (Anna Todd, New York Times bestselling author) from the #1 New ...

Last Girl Ghosted e-book Download

Last Girl Ghosted

Lisa UngerOctober 5, 2021$12.99

"A five-alarm fire of a situation…the surprises keep coming." —The New York Times   Secrets, obsession and vengeance converge in this riveting thriller about an online dating match ...

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The Storyteller

Dave GrohlOctober 5, 2021$14.99

So, I've written a book. Having entertained the idea for years, and even offered a few questionable opportunities ("It's a piece of cake! Just do 4 hours of interviews, find someone else to ...

The Love Hypothesis e-book Download

The Love Hypothesis

Ali HazelwoodSeptember 14, 2021$9.99

The Instant New York Times Bestseller! As seen on THE VIEW! A BuzzFeed Best Summer Read of 2021 When a fake relationship between scientists meets the irresistible force of attraction, it thr...

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Foul Play

Stuart WoodsOctober 5, 2021$14.99

In the latest action-packed thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Stuart Woods, Stone Barrington faces down a persistent rival. Stone Barrington is nearing his New York City abo...

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The Lincoln Highway

Amor TowlesOctober 5, 2021$14.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A TODAY Show Read with Jenna Book Club Pick “Wise and wildly entertaining . . . permeated with light, wit, youth.” — The New York Times Book Review   ...

Finding My Reason e-book Download

Finding My Reason

Claudia BurgoaOctober 19, 2016$0.99

I expect my best buddy’s wedding to be a bust until the beautiful bartender asks me if I could use something stiff. Trust me, “getting something stiff” is the least of my worries. One ...

Better Off Dead e-book Download

Better Off Dead

Lee Child & Andrew ChildOctober 26, 2021$14.99

Jack Reacher is back in a brand-new page-turning thriller from acclaimed #1 bestselling authors Lee Child and Andrew Child. Digging graves had not been part of my plans when I woke up that m...

The Penguin Lessons e-book Download

The Penguin Lessons

Tom MichellOctober 27, 2015$1.99

A unique and moving real-life story of the extraordinary bond between a young teacher and a penguin, this book will delight readers who loved Marley & Me, Dewey the Library Cat, The Good...

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Brother Cadfael's Penance

Ellis PetersAugust 5, 2014$1.99

To save his estranged son, a monk risks breaking his vows in this “moving and suspenseful” entry in the Silver Dagger Award–winning medieval mystery series ( Booklist ). For Brother Ca...

Sex and Vanity e-book Download

Sex and Vanity

Kevin KwanJune 30, 2020$1.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • A Good Morning America Book Club Pick   The author of the New York Times bestselling phenomenon Crazy Rich Asians takes you from Capri to NYC, where Lucie ...

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The President's Daughter

James Patterson & Bill ClintonJune 7, 2021$14.99

All Presidents have nightmares.  This one is about to come true. A rocket ride of a thriller—the #1  New York Times  bestselling blockbuster by President Bill Clinton and Ja...

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Infamous Like Us

Krista Ritchie & Becca RitchieOctober 18, 2021$4.99

22-year-old Sullivan Meadows knew dating Akara & Banks would be complicated, but now that her relationship is public,  everything  has been put on blast: @HeatherB: Can’t bel...

On Language e-book Download

On Language

Noam ChomskyFebruary 7, 2017$1.99

The two most popular titles by the noted linguist and critic in one volume—an ideal introduction to his work.   On Language  features some of Noam Chomsky’s most informal and h...

The Bullet Journal Method e-book Download

The Bullet Journal Method

Ryder CarrollOctober 23, 2018$1.99

New York Times  bestseller!  There’s a reason this system for time management, goal setting, and intentional living has been adopted by millions around the globe: it works. Not o...

Enemy at the Gates e-book Download

Enemy at the Gates

Vince Flynn & Kyle MillsSeptember 14, 2021$14.99

Mitch Rapp, the CIA’s top operative, searches for a high-level mole with the power to rewrite the world order in this riveting thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Vince Flyn...

Reflections on the Psalms e-book Download

Reflections on the Psalms

C. S. LewisFebruary 14, 2017$11.99

A repackaged edition of the revered author’s moving theological work in which he considers the most poetic portions from Scripture and what they tell us about God, the Bible, and faith. In...

Rigged e-book Download

Rigged

Mollie HemingwayOctober 12, 2021$14.99

FROM THE AUTHOR OF THE #1 NATIONAL BESTSELLER JUSTICE ON TRIAL Stunned by the turbulence of the 2020 election, millions of Americans are asking the forbidden question: what really happened? ...

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Christmas at Grandma's

Gooseberry PatchJune 2, 2015$1.99

Simple recipes that capture the traditional holiday celebrations we remember from Grandma's house. Everything you need for a good old-fashioned Christmas, with chapters like Waking Up at Gra...

Meant To Be e-book Download

Meant To Be

Kat BammerApril 1, 2020$0.99

The polar opposite of no-strings-attached and easy? An unexpected pregnancy. Blake is content with his life. He’d served the community as a Navy SEAL, now all he wants is to run his bar an...

Verity e-book Download

Verity

Colleen HooverOctober 5, 2021$5.99

A "sublimely creepy" psychological thriller from #1 New York Times bestselling author Colleen Hoover (Tarryn Fisher, New York Times bestselling author). Lowen Ashleigh is a struggling writer...

2 Sisters Detective Agency e-book Download

2 Sisters Detective Agency

James Patterson & Candice FoxOctober 5, 2021$11.99

From the world's #1 bestselling author comes a thrilling new standalone novel where a detective duo of sisters finds themselves in the crosshairs of a dangerous and lawless group. Attorney R...

The Mountaintop School for Dogs and Other Second Chances e-book Download

The Mountaintop School for Dogs and Other Second Chances

Ellen CooneyAugust 5, 2014$1.99

“Love is a great teacher and we are all a little unadoptable. Readers of Garth Stein and Carolyn Parkhurst will adore this” ( Library Journal ).   A People Best New Book of the Week...

The Judge's List e-book Download

The Judge's List

John GrishamOctober 19, 2021$14.99

Nonstop suspense from the #1 New York Times bestselling author: Investigator Lacy Stoltz follows the trail of a serial killer, and closes in on a shocking suspect—a sitting judge.  &#...

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Wylde

Sawyer BennettMay 12, 2020$0.99

There’s a reason they call me Wylde and it’s not just because it’s my last name. I might be one of the newest players on the Arizona Vengeance team, but I’m no stranger to the celebr...

Hey, Good Looking e-book Download

Hey, Good Looking

Fern MichaelsApril 4, 2006$1.99

With lively prose, unforgettable characters, and a touch of mischievous wit, Fern Michaels creates vivid reading experiences in all of her acclaimed USA TODAY and New York Times bestselling ...

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The Last Thing He Told Me

Laura DaveMay 4, 2021$13.99

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER SELECTION OF THE REESE WITHERSPOON BOOK CLUB A HIGHLY ANTICIPATED, BEST BOOK OF SUMMER SELECTED BY * VOGUE * USA TODAY * ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY * CNN * TOWN & ...

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State of Terror

Louise Penny & Hillary ClintonOctober 12, 2021$14.99

Named one of the most anticipated novels of the season by People , Associated Press, Time , Los Angeles Times , Parade , St. Louis Post-Dispatch , The Guardian , Publishers Weekly , and more...

The Butler e-book Download

The Butler

Danielle SteelOctober 5, 2021$14.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Two different worlds and two very different lives collide in Paris in this captivating novel by Danielle Steel. Joachim von Hartmann was born and raised in Buen...

Desire Lines e-book Download

Desire Lines

Christina Baker KlineFebruary 1, 2011$1.99

From the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Orphan Train comes a novel about friendship and the memories that haunt us. On the night of her high school graduation, K...

Silverview e-book Download

Silverview

John le CarréOctober 12, 2021$14.99

In his last completed novel, John le Carré turns his focus to the world that occupied his writing for the past sixty years—the secret world itself. Named a most anticipated book of the fa...

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The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo

Taylor Jenkins ReidJune 13, 2017$13.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “If you ’ re looking for a book to take on holiday this summer, The Seven Husbands of Evelyn Hugo has got all the glitz and glamour to make it a perfect beach r...

Apples Never Fall e-book Download

Apples Never Fall

Liane MoriartySeptember 14, 2021$14.99

#1 New York Times Bestseller From Liane Moriarty, the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Big Little Lies and Nine Perfect Strangers , comes Apples Never Fall , a novel that looks at mar...

Final Girls e-book Download

Final Girls

Riley SagerJuly 11, 2017$1.99

THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER “If you liked  Gone Girl , you’ll like this.”—Stephen King   Ten years ago, six friends went on vacation. One made it out alive…...

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Second Chance Contract

M. RobinsonAugust 31, 2021$4.99

From Wall Street Journal and USA Today Bestselling Author M. Robinson comes a standalone best friend’s baby sister, second chance billionaire romance. She was my best friend's little siste...

Beloved e-book Download

Beloved

Toni MorrisonAugust 12, 1987$1.99

Staring unflinchingly into the abyss of slavery, this spellbinding  New York Times bestseller transforms history into a story as powerful as Exodus and as intimate as a lullaby. Sethe, ...

Dune e-book Download

Dune

Frank HerbertSeptember 1, 1975$9.99

NOW A MAJOR MOTION PICTURE directed by Denis Villeneuve, starring Timothée Chalamet, Zendaya, Jason Momoa, Rebecca Ferguson, Oscar Isaac, Josh Brolin, Stellan Skarsgård, Dave Bau...

The Farm in the Green Mountains e-book Download

The Farm in the Green Mountains

Alice Herdan-Zuckmayer, Elisa Albert, Ida H. Washington & Carol E. WashingtonMay 2, 2017$1.99

The charming, return-to-the-land memoir of a refugee family who flees Nazi Germany and finds their true home in the backwoods of rural Vermont Alice and Carl Zuckmayer lived at the...

Cloud Cuckoo Land e-book Download

Cloud Cuckoo Land

Anthony DoerrSeptember 28, 2021$14.99

Finalist for the 2021 National Book Award and the instant New York Times bestseller! From the Pulitzer Prize–winning author of All the Light We Cannot See , perhaps the most bestselling an...

Signs e-book Download

Signs

Laura Lynne JacksonJune 18, 2019$1.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • A renowned psychic medium teaches us how to recognize and interpret the life-changing messages from loved ones and spirit guides on the Other Side. “A collect...

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Maid

Stephanie Land & Barbara EhrenreichJanuary 22, 2019$11.99

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER  AND INSPIRATION FOR THE NETFLIX LIMITED SERIES, HAILED BY ROLLING STONE  AS "A GREAT ONE."    "A single mother's personal, unflinching loo...

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The Scarlet Ruse

John D. MacDonald & Lee ChildAugust 12, 1983$2.99

Travis McGee is too busy with his houseboat to pay attention to the little old man with the missing postage stamps. Except these are no ordinary stamps. They are rare stamps. Four hundred th...

Best Seller Sue Mercury Sue Lyndon Audio Books of October 2021

Greenlights (Unabridged) audiobook
Greenlights (Unabridged)Matthew McConaughey$14.99

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The Storyteller audiobook
The StorytellerDave Grohl$19.99

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Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged) audiobook
Can't Hurt Me: Master Your Mind and Defy the Odds (Unabridged)David Goggins$21.99

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The Daily Laws: 366 Meditations on Power, Seduction, Mastery, Strategy, and Human Nature (Unabridged) audiobook
The Daily Laws: 366 Meditations on Power, Seduction, Mastery, Strategy, and Human Nature (Unabridged)Robert Greene$14.99

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The Turn of the Key (Unabridged)Ruth Ware$4.99

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Dune audiobook
DuneFrank Herbert$26.99

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Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged) audiobook
Rich Dad Poor Dad: 20th Anniversary Edition: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! (Unabridged)Robert T. Kiyosaki$12.99

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Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged) audiobook
Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones (Unabridged)James Clear$14.99

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The Wish audiobook
The WishNicholas Sparks$14.99

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The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ckMark Manson$14.99

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