E L Lancaster Kenon D Renfrow Biography & Facts
Group piano is the study of how to play the piano in a group setting. This contrasts with the more common individual/private lesson. Group piano originated at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and continues to be a widely-used method of piano instruction. Group lesson formats include master classes, university classes, and pre-college music lessons. These classes typically have between 3 and 16 students. Benefits of the group lesson format include the development of independent learning, ensemble playing, critical listening skills, and exposure to a wide range of repertoire. Group piano instruction may require more space and equipment, increased preparation per class, and more attention to scheduling and group interaction than when teaching individual/private lessons.
Group piano instruction can be traced to Johann Bernhard Logier (1777-1846). Logier, an Irish business man, developed a system of teaching that increased income for teachers while lowering the cost of lessons for students. His classes accommodated up to thirty students of differing skill levels. The focus of the class was developing music theory and keyboard theory rather than developing advanced technique. Due to the affordability of Logier's class format, it quickly gained traction in Great Britain, India, Ireland, and the United States.
Master classes were often taught by well-known pianist/composers. Clara Schumann, Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn, Karl Tausig, Anton Rubinstein, Theodore Kullak, and Hans von Bülow were some of the most famous teachers to teach in this format. These classes occurred in the homes of teachers as well as in newly-formed conservatories.
The Industrial Revolution and ensuing rise of the middle class in the 19th century provided increased opportunities for leisure activities and created a high demand for pianos. By the end of the 19th century, the United States was a world leader in the production of pianos, and families all over the country owned a piano and sought music instruction. In 1889 the U.S. Office of Education promoted class piano programs in elementary schools as a viable way for students to get an affordable music education. The first group piano classes in public schools launched in 1913 and grew until the 1930s. As a result, method books for teaching piano in the classroom began to be published. These included Young Student’s Piano Course by Earhart and Boyd (1918), Public School Class Method for Piano (1919) by Giddings and Gilman, and Steps for the Young Pianist (1919) by Hazel Kinsecella. By the end of the 1920s, over eight hundred elementary schools in the United States offered class piano programs, creating a demand for teacher training courses and certificate programs. However, in the 1930s, interest in elementary class piano programs began to decline due in part to the Great Depression and World War II.As group piano declined in public elementary schools, group lessons in the college setting began to gain momentum. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Raymond Burrows, a professor at Columbia University Teachers College, pioneered collegiate group piano instruction using piano labs. By 1952, Burrows calculated that 256 universities in the United States provided group piano classes. These courses were designed to provide music majors with functional keyboard skills that would aid them in their musical careers; these classes focused on harmonization, transposition, and sight-reading. Because most university piano teachers were more familiar with the individual/private lesson format, universities began to offer courses in teaching group piano. Group piano lessons in the college setting continued to expand with the invention of the electronic keyboard laboratory, first achieved by Ball State University in 1956.Independent pre-college piano studios continued to implement the group piano format. During the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, Robert Pace, James Bastien, and Frances Clark began to write books encouraging partner lessons, group lessons, and various combinations of group and private instruction. By the end of the 1970s, group piano was established as a profitable format for instruction. The Music Teachers National Association (MTNA) and the National Piano Foundation (NPF) began to provide training on teaching in groups, and journals such as American Music Teacher, Piano Quarterly, Keyboard Companion, and Clavier began publishing articles related to teaching in groups.
Pre-college group piano classes are designed for students ranging in age from 4 to 18. Groups are usually created based on student experience and skill level. Pre-college group piano lessons may take place in a private studio with multiple keyboards or a piano lab in a school. Lessons may include a mixture of playing piano and activities away from the piano. There are group piano method books available and most methods can be adapted to fit group lessons.
Most North American university music departments provide group piano classes. The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), the principal U.S. accreditation organization of approximately 643 institutions educational programs in music and music-related disciplines, includes “keyboard competency” in their handbook as a necessary requirement for music students to graduate. Group piano classes are the most widely-used format for teaching keyboard competency to college students due to their efficiency and the advantages of group learning. Advocates for collegiate group piano have stated that it is the “most effective and efficient tool” for enabling students to be independent learners so they can continue to make music for a lifetime. While NASM does not define "keyboard competency", there is a general consensus among universities that competency should include functional piano skills such as the playing of repertoire, harmonization, transposition, sight-reading, open score reading, and improvisation.The structure of college level group piano classes varies by university. Group piano sequences typically involve 2 to 6 semesters, situated within the first 2 or 3 years of study. Goals of the group piano sequence include introducing and reinforcing functional keyboard skills, bringing students with varying musical background to a competent level by the end of the course, and nurturing enthusiasm for music in general and the piano specifically. At the end of the course sequence, music majors must often take a piano proficiency exam. Most piano proficiency exams require students to transpose, harmonize, sight-read, and perform a piece of solo piano repertoire.
Group piano lessons are often taken by adults as a hobby and for personal development. They may take place in a private studio with multiple keyboards or a piano lab in a college community program. Because of the wide range of students, groups should be formed based upon students’ lifespan development stage or level .... Discover the E L Lancaster Kenon D Renfrow popular books. Find the top 100 most popular E L Lancaster Kenon D Renfrow books.